A Pragmatic and Semantic Study
Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Glosses and Transcribed Sentences xv
xv Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Glosses and Transcribed Sentences ASP aspect particle after a predicative verb or adjective, i.e. -le ( ), -zhe ( ), or -guo ( ) BA preposition ba ( ) used to advance the object of the predicative verb to the pre-verb position BI comparative word bi ( ) used to link two things to be compared CL classifier used between a numeral and a noun, or between a demonstrative (this or that) and a noun, e.g. ge ( ), tiao ( ), jian ( ), etc. EMP emphatic adverb such as cai ( ), ke ( ), or you ( ) GEN possessive marker: -de ( ), which denotes a possessive relationship between the noun phrases linked by it Int. interjection that appears as a separate element at the beginning or end of a Mandarin sentence NOM nominalizer: -de ( ) used to turn an adjective or a verb consti- tuent into a noun phrase PSV passive voice marker: gei ( ) or bei ( ) PT unspecified particle at the end of a sentence RHM rhetorical question marker such as nar ( ), nali ( ), nandao ( ), etc. STP structural particles: -de ( ), -de ( ), -de ( ), which serve to show grammatical relationships between sentence elements ( denotes that the sentence constituent before it is grammatically an attributive modifying the noun after it. indicates that the sentence element attached by it is an adverbial phrase modifying the subsequent verb or verb phrase. The grammatical function of is to introduce a post-verb complement.) ZAI adverb zai ( ) indicating the progressive aspect of an action xvi ~ undefinable element in an idiomatic phrase or a verb-object compound . . omission or a big pause made by a...
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