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Signals, Systems and Sound Synthesis

Martin Neukom

The subject of this book is the synthesis and treatment of sound by computer. Using illustrations, animations, sound examples and sample programs, it introduces the most important techniques of sound and score synthesis and explains the technical and mathematical principles necessary for understanding them. After reviewing fundamentals of acoustics, the author describes system and signal theory and introduces the programs and programming languages used in the book. The traditionally important synthesis techniques are described in detail, as are various nonlinear synthesis techniques and synthesis by physical modeling. The concluding chapters of the book deal with the projection of sound in space and with the use of algorithmic and stochastic procedures in computer music. The appendix contains a survey of basic mathematical principles, various tables for reference and a detailed index. The included CD contains the entire text of the book, as well as additional chapters and explanations, sound examples, animations illustrating dynamic processes and many sample computer programs.

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Preface . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . xxiii 1 How to Use This Book. . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Getting Started . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Overview. . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Instructions for Using Specific Programs . . . . . 2 2 Fundamentals of Acoustics . . . . . . . . 5 2.1 Basic Physical Principles and Units . . . . . . 5 2.2 Vibration and Waves . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Sound and Hearing . . . . . . . . 30 3 Signals and Systems . . . . . . . . . 45 3.1 Analog Signals and the Fourier Transform . . . . . 45 3.2 Digital Signals, DFT, FFT . . . . . . . 63 3.3 Systems and Filters . . . . . . . . 78 3.4 Dynamic Systems and Feedback Control . . . . . 109 4 Computer Programs and Programming Languages . . . . . 163 4.1 Csound . . . . . . . . . 163 4.2 Max . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.3 Mathematica . . . . . . . . . 179 4.4 C / C++ . . . . . . . . . 190 4.5 Processing . . . . . . . . . 203 5 Fundamentals of Sound Synthesis . . . . . . . 207 5.1 Fundamental Techniques of Sound Synthesis . . . . . 207 5.2 Additive Synthesis . . . . . . . . 244 5.3 Subtractive Synthesis . . . . . . . . 259 6 Nonlinear Techniques . . . . . . . . 267 6.1 Modulation Techniques and Distortion. . . . . . 267 6.2 Nonlinear Systems . . . . . . . . 297 7 Other Techniques for Sound Analysis and Synthesis . . . . . 317 7.1 Granular Synthesis . . . . . . . . 317 7.2 Special Analysis Methods . . . . . . . 328 8 Physical Modeling . . . . . . . . . 337 8.1 Mass-Spring Models . . . . . . . . 338 8.2 Wave Guides. . . . . . . . . . 390 9 Sound and Space . . . . . . . . . 417 9.1 Spatial Hearing. . . . . . . . . 417 9.2 Reflection and Reverberation . . . . . . . 426 9.3 Sound Reproduction . . . . . . . . 435 10 Computers and Composition . . . . . . . . 455 10.1 Chance and Probability . . . . . . . 455 10.2 Stochastic Processes . . . . . . . . 487 10.3 Other Techniques Used for Composition . . . . . 508 Appendix A Fundamentals of Mathematics . . . . . . 545 Appendix B Tables . . . . . . . . . 571 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . 577 Index . . . . . . . . . . 587 vi Short Contents

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