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Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’

Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity

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Daisuke Akimoto

This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employs the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an analytical framework. To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, this study applies ‘analytical eclecticism’ and integrates the analytical framework (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approaches. In an application of analytical eclecticism, the author proposes four theoretical models of Japan’s security identity: (a) ‘pacifist state’ (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) ‘UN peacekeeper’ (neo-liberalism/positive pacifism); (c) ‘normal state’ (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) ‘US ally’ (neo-realism/external-structural pressure). In addition to the four basic models above, this book attempts to reveal Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’.

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Table of Contents 7

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Table of Contents Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A Note on Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Introduction Pacifism and Security Identity of Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chapter One Japan as a ‘Pacifist State’: Security Policy 1945–1990 . . . . . . . . 53 Chapter Two: Japan as a ‘UN Peace-Keeper’ in Cambodia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Chapter Three Japan as a ‘UN Peace-Builder’ in East Timor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Chapter Four: Japan as a ‘US Ally’ in Response to the War on Terror . . . . . . . . . 165 Chapter Five Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’: The Future of the Peace Constitution and Japan’s Core Security Identity . . . . . . . . . 205 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 8

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