Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity
11 Abstract This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. Existing literature overlooks a correlation between the shift in the nature of Japan’s paci- fism and its changing security identity. Moreover, earlier scholarship tends to focus on a particular theoretical perspective, and therefore, offers limited theoretical analyses. Accordingly, the main aim of the study is to contribute to filling this research gap by applying an alterna- tive framework combined with an eclectic approach and offering a com- prehensive analysis of Japan’s pacifism and security identity. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employed the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitu- tion) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an ana- lytical framework. The conceptualisation is derived from a definition of ‘negative-positive peace’ (Galtung 1969). To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, the author applied ‘analyti- cal eclecticism’ (Katzenstein 2008) and integrated the analytical frame- work (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approach. In an application of analytical eclecticism, this study proposed four theoretical perspectives of Japan’s security identity: (a) pacifist state (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) UN peace- keeper (neo-liberalism /positive pacifism); (c) normal state (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) US ally (neo-realism/external-struc- tural pressure). The main argument of this book is that there has been an incremen- tal shift from negative pacifism to positive pacifism in response to do- mestic and external pressures and that this...
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