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Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’

Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity

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Daisuke Akimoto

This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employs the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an analytical framework. To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, this study applies ‘analytical eclecticism’ and integrates the analytical framework (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approaches. In an application of analytical eclecticism, the author proposes four theoretical models of Japan’s security identity: (a) ‘pacifist state’ (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) ‘UN peacekeeper’ (neo-liberalism/positive pacifism); (c) ‘normal state’ (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) ‘US ally’ (neo-realism/external-structural pressure). In addition to the four basic models above, this book attempts to reveal Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’.

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11 Abstract This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. Existing literature overlooks a correlation between the shift in the nature of Japan’s paci- fism and its changing security identity. Moreover, earlier scholarship tends to focus on a particular theoretical perspective, and therefore, offers limited theoretical analyses. Accordingly, the main aim of the study is to contribute to filling this research gap by applying an alterna- tive framework combined with an eclectic approach and offering a com- prehensive analysis of Japan’s pacifism and security identity. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employed the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitu- tion) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an ana- lytical framework. The conceptualisation is derived from a definition of ‘negative-positive peace’ (Galtung 1969). To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, the author applied ‘analyti- cal eclecticism’ (Katzenstein 2008) and integrated the analytical frame- work (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approach. In an application of analytical eclecticism, this study proposed four theoretical perspectives of Japan’s security identity: (a) pacifist state (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) UN peace- keeper (neo-liberalism /positive pacifism); (c) normal state (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) US ally (neo-realism/external-struc- tural pressure). The main argument of this book is that there has been an incremen- tal shift from negative pacifism to positive pacifism in response to do- mestic and external pressures and that this...

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