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Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’

Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity

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Daisuke Akimoto

This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employs the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an analytical framework. To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, this study applies ‘analytical eclecticism’ and integrates the analytical framework (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approaches. In an application of analytical eclecticism, the author proposes four theoretical models of Japan’s security identity: (a) ‘pacifist state’ (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) ‘UN peacekeeper’ (neo-liberalism/positive pacifism); (c) ‘normal state’ (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) ‘US ally’ (neo-realism/external-structural pressure). In addition to the four basic models above, this book attempts to reveal Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’.

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List of Abbreviations 13

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13 List of Abbreviation AIA Afghan Interim Authority ANZUS Australia New Zealand and United States APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation ASDF Air Self-Defence Forces ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations COCOM Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls DDR Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration DPJ Democratic Party of Japan EU European Union FEC Far Eastern Commission GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GHQ General Headquarters GNP Gross National Product GOJ Government of Japan GPPAC Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict GSDF Ground Self-Defence Forces Fretilin Frente Revolucionaria de Timor Leste Independente (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor) FUNCINPEC United National Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia HAER Humanitarian Assistance and Emergency Rehabilitation IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency ICORC International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia IDP Internally Displaced Persons IMF International Monetary Fund INTERFET International Force for East Timor ISAF International Security Assistance Force JCP Japanese Communist Party JDA Japan Defence Agency JFIR Japan Forum on International Relations JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency 14 JSP Japan Socialist Party KPNLF Khmer People’s National Liberation Front LDP Liberal Democratic Party MSDF Maritime Self-Defence Forces MOD Ministry of Defence Japan MOJ Ministry of Justice Japan MOFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NCR Non-Communist Resistance NDL National Diet Library NDPG National Defence Program Guidelines NGO Non-Governmental Organisation NPT Non-Proliferation Treaty ODA Official Development Assistance PBF Peace-Building Force PKF Peacekeeping Forces PKO Peacekeeping Operations RIMPAC Rim of the Pacific SCAP Supreme Commander of the Allied...

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