Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity
Chapter One Japan as a ‘Pacifist State’: Security Policy 1945–1990 53
53 Chapter One Japan as a ‘Pacifist State’: Security Policy 1945–1990 Introduction As discussed in the Introduction, Japanese post-war anti-militarism and anti-war pacifism based on Article 9 and the traumatic experience of the Second World War can be categorised as ‘negative pacifism’. Negative pacifism has consistently influenced post-war Japan’s security policy and prohibited its military participation in international disputes. The study of foreign and security policy in post-war Japan tends to focus on the influence of the Yoshida Doctrine, which concentrated on economic de- velopment (with minimal defence expenditure).141 This chapter, however, will analyse Japan’s security policy from the perspective of negative pacifism as a defence constraint. Notably, negative pacifism has been frequently used to resist US pressure on Japan to remilitarise. Indeed, suc- cessive Japanese prime ministers have used Article 9 of the 1947 Con- stitution as a pretext to turn down requests for remilitarisation from the United States. Negative pacifism as anti-war pacifism or the culture of anti-militarism has been embraced by the majority of the Japanese people moreover, and has heavily influenced Japan’s security policymaking. Japan’s post-war security policy from 1945 to the present, according to Takashi Inoguchi, can be placed into five 15 year periods (1945–1960, 1960–1975, 1975–1990, 1990–2005, and 2005–2020).142 Inoguchi cate- 141 According to Kenneth Pyle, Yoshida never used the word, ‘Yoshida Doctrine’ but for the sake of expediency, the author uses this term when discussing post-war Japa- nese politics. See Pyle, Japanese Question, 25. 142...
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