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Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’

Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity

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Daisuke Akimoto

This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employs the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an analytical framework. To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, this study applies ‘analytical eclecticism’ and integrates the analytical framework (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approaches. In an application of analytical eclecticism, the author proposes four theoretical models of Japan’s security identity: (a) ‘pacifist state’ (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) ‘UN peacekeeper’ (neo-liberalism/positive pacifism); (c) ‘normal state’ (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) ‘US ally’ (neo-realism/external-structural pressure). In addition to the four basic models above, this book attempts to reveal Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’.

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Chapter Three Japan as a ‘UN Peace-Builder’ in East Timor 129

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129 Chapter Three Japan as a ‘UN Peace-Builder’ in East Timor Introduction As discussed in the previous chapter, participation in UNTAC was a turning-point for Japan’s security policy. Japanese pacifism shifted from one-nation pacifism constrained by Article 9 (negative pacifism) to in- ternational pacifism based on the Preamble of the Constitution (positive pacifism). After sending the SDF to Cambodia, the Japanese government dispatched peacekeepers to the following UN peacekeeping operations and other humanitarian operations: Mozambique (1993); El Salvador (1994); Congo (1994); Golan Heights (1995, 1996); Bosnia (1998); and Kosovo (1999).422 Since participation in the UNTAC operation, Japan has continued to make contributions to post-conflict peace operations as a ‘UN peacekeeper’. In this context, the Japanese government attempted to make a greater contribution to peacekeeping operations in East Timor. The UN-led peace operations in East Timor were comprehensive and can be divided into four major stages. First, the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET), led-by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Ian Martin was established on 11 June 1999 in order to observe the national referendum. Second, the Austral- ian-led International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) under the com- mand of Major General Peter Cosgrove began on 15 September 1999 as a peace-enforcement operation authorised by the United Nations. Third, as a peacekeeping operation, the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) led by the SRSG Sergio Vieira de Mello was set up on 25 October 1999. Fourth, as a post-independent peace-building operation, the United Nations Mission...

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