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English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains

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Maria Grazia Guido

This book explores the cognitive and communicative processes involved in the use of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) within cross-cultural specialized contexts where non-native speakers of English – i.e. Western experts and non-Western migrants – interact. The book argues that the main communicative difficulties in such contexts are due precisely to the use of ELF, since it develops from the non-native speakers’ transfer of their native language structures and socio-cultural schemata into the English they speak. Transfer, in fact, allows non-native speakers to appropriate, or authenticate, those English semantic, syntactic, pragmatic and specialized-discourse structures that are linguistically and conceptually unavailable to them. It follows that there are as many ELF varieties as there are communities of non-native speakers authenticating English.
The research questions justifying the ethnographic case studies detailed in this book are: What kind of cognitive frames and communicative strategies do Western experts activate in order to convey their culturally-marked knowledge of specialized discourse – by using their ELF varieties – to non-Westerners with different linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds? What kind of power asymmetries can be identified when non-Westerners try to communicate their own knowledge by using their respective ELF varieties? Is it possible to ultimately develop a mode of ELF specialized communication that can be shared by both Western experts and non-Western migrants?

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Index 279

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279 Index Absolute Event Construal: see Ergativ- ity. Acceptability: 219, 220, 224, 225, 233, 238, 240, 249, 252. Accessibility: 22, 75, 98, 130, 214, 220, 247, 252. - Conceptual/Cognitive A.: 22, 27, 34, 35, 131, 151, 152, 219, 220, 238, 239, 240, 244, 251, 252, 253. - Pragmatic A.: 27, 223, 224, 240, 244. Accusativity: 28, 41, 42, 56, 128, 129, 130, 132, 136, 138, 141, 142, 144, 145, 156 (see also Transitivity). - Accusative Event Structures: 42, 47, 132, 134. - Accusative Languages: 42, 43, 50, 128, 156. APA Lexicon (Specialized, Psychiatric L.): 99, 113. Appropriateness: 29, 33, 150, 223, 240, 248. Appropriation: 25, 178, 240. - ELF/L2 A.: 217, 239, 244, 253. - Genre A.: 179, 180. Argumentation: 103, 163, 179, 189, 191, 192, 229, 231, 233, 238. Authentication: 25, 33, 124, 127, 177, 179, 240, 241, 253. - Discourse/Genre A.: 179, 180, 183, 192, 219, 238. - ELF A.: 126, 178, 217, 239, 244, 253. Availability: 22, 27, 31, 33, 131, 150, 151. - Cultural A.: 131. - Schematic A.: 22, 27, 122, 131, 151. - Semantic A.: 27, 131. - Syntactic A.: 27. Bottom-up Processes: see Interpreta- tion. Cognitive Theory/Grammar/Linguistics/ Semantics: 35, 42, 100, 102, 175, 197 (see also Experientialist Theory). Coherence: 30, 76, 101, 102, 103, 201, 248. - Deviating C. (in Non-Western Narra- tive): 78, 82, 89, 97, 100, 101, 102. - Non-conventional Ethnopoetic C.: see Ethnopoetics. - Coherent Paragraph: see Paragraph. Cohesion: 30, 76, 89, 201. - Ethnopoetic C.: see Ethnopoetics. - Formal...

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