Edited By Lorenz E. Baumer, Frédéric Elsig and Sabine Frommel
The 1540s: a turning point in the development of European architecture 11 HOWARD BURNS
The 1540s: a turning point in the development of European architecture HOWARD BURNS The topic of the colloquium was well chosen: the 1540s, in European cul- ture, and speciﬁcally in art and architecture, was a decade of great impor- tance, of change and transition1. The fruits of earlier researches and achieve- ments, were now publicised, codiﬁed and implemented, thanks to constant travel and networking, and greater peace security and conﬁdence, at least in most of Italy. And perhaps above all as the result of the development of the book industry. Venice remained the most important centre for the pub- lication of illustrated works and of literary and scholarly books of high quality, followed by Lyon, Paris, and at a certain distance, by Basel. These four centres probably accounted for at least 80 % of the total production of high quality texts. Florence, Rome, Strasbourg, Nuremberg, Antwerp, were also producing substantial numbers of ﬁne scholarly and literary works. New architectural books were published and old ones issued in new editions or translated from Latin into French and Italian, or from Italian into French. Vitruvius appeared in German, Serlio was translated into French but also, in 1539 into Flemish a mere two years after the ﬁrst Italian 1 Though limited to a decade, and dealing principally with architecture, the theme is a large one and the bibliography very extensive. General bibliography on themes touched upon is not always cited in the notes below, not least because we now can...
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