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Global Food Governance

Implications of Food Safety and Quality Standards in International Trade Law

Series:

Mariela Maidana-Eletti

With increasingly globalised markets, changing consumer preferences and the steady development of technologies influencing food trade flows, safety and quality concerns have triggered the development of new forms of global (food) governance. Since its creation in 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has succeeded in providing a multilateral legal framework for the development of regulatory practices through its multiple agreements. Similarly, the continuing importance of regional and bilateral trade agreements, such as in the European Union and in Switzerland, has enhanced WTO’s accomplishments through a comprehensive and dynamic set of international rules and standards for trade. However, the changing trends in the production and distribution of food products have questioned the effectiveness of the regulatory status quo. This book addresses the legal aspects of the current global architecture for food governance, particularly with regard to the role of international standards. In doing so, this work attempts at mapping the implications of domestic food measures in international trade law.

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List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Global Food Markets and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Hypothesis and Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Global Food Governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1 Exploring the Concept of Global Governance . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.1.1 On Good Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1.2 On Food Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2 Economic Theories of International Trade: A Question of Market Failure or Market Access? . . . . . . . . 14 1.2.1 Market Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.2.2 Market Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3 A Summary of the Legal Foundations of the Multilateral Trading System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.3.1 National Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.3.2 Most-Favoured Nation Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.3.3 The Concept of Like Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.3.4 General Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. The Importance of Food Standards in International Trade Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.1.1 The Role of Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.1.2 The Concept of International Standards. . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.2 What is a Relevant International Standard? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.3 International Standard as a Basis for Regulation . . . . . . . . . 33 2.4 Effectiveness and Appropriateness of Attaining a Legitimate Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.4.1 Effectiveness and Appropriateness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 X 2.4.2 Legitimate Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3. Food Standard-Setting Organisations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.2 The Codex Alimentarius Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 3.2.1 CAC Rules of Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.2.2 The Development of CAC Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.2.3 The Adoption of CAC Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.3 The International Organization for Standardization. . . . . . . 46 3.3.1 ISO Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.3.2 The Development and Adoption of ISO Standards . . . . 48 3.4 Case Study: The German Food Code Commission . . . . . . . 51 3.4.1 The Adoption and Modification of Food Standards . . . . 53 3.4.2 The Impact of Adopted Food Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3.4.2.1 Ham...

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