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Mariage et métissage dans les sociétés coloniales - Marriage and misgeneration in colonial societies

Amériques, Afrique et Iles de l’Océan Indien (XVI e –XX e siècles) - Americas, Africa and islands of the Indian ocean (XVI th –XX th centuries)

Series:

Guy Brunet

La conquête de vastes empires coloniaux par les puissances européennes, suivie par des mouvements migratoires d’ampleur variable selon les territoires et les époques, a donné naissance à de nouvelles sociétés. Les principaux groupes humains, indigènes, sous différentes appellations, colons d’origine européenne et leurs descendants, et parfois esclaves arrachés au continent africain, se sont mélangés parfois rapidement et avec une forte intensité, parfois plus tardivement ou marginalement. Les unions, officialisées par des mariages ou restées consensuelles, provoqué l’apparition de nouvelles générations métisses et ainsi qu’un phénomène de créolisation. L’effectif de chacun de ces groupes humains, et l’existence éventuelle de barrières entre eux, ont produit des degrés de métissage très divers que les administrateurs des sociétés coloniales ont tenté de classifier. Les seize textes réunis dans cet ouvrage abordent la manière dont les populations se sont mélangées, ainsi que la position des métis dans les nouvelles sociétés. Ces questions sont abordées dans une perspective de long terme, du XVIe au XXe siècle, et à propos de nombreux territoires, du Canada à la Bolivie, des Antilles à Madagascar, de l’Algérie à l’Angola.
The conquest of large colonial empires by European powers, followed by migratory flows, more or less important depending on places and periods, gave birth to new societies. The most important human groups, indigenous, European born settlers and their descendants, and sometimes slaves snatched from the African continent, mixed, more or less early, more or less intensely. Unions, legally registered or not, and misgeneration lead to the appearance of mixed-blood generations and to a process of creolisation. The numerical strength of these human groups, and the existence of barriers between them, produced various degrees of misgeneration that the authorities of the colonial societies tried to identify and to classify. The sixteen texts gathered in this book study the way that these populations got mixed, and the place of mixed-blood people in the new societies. These issues are tackled in a long-term perspective, about various territories, from Canada to Bolivia, from the French West Indies to Madagascar, from Algeria to Angola.
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The aboriginal and mixed-race population in Canada, 1871–1901

Appendix 1: Census Instructions

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Michelle HAMILTON, Western University, Canada Kris INWOOD, University of Guelph, Canada

Any inquiry into ethnic inter-marriage and mixed-ancestry Aboriginal populations rests on some understanding of the principles of ethnic identification and sources that point to individual ethnicities. For late nineteenth-century Canada the source with the broadest coverage is the census. A careful reading of the Canadian census in this period provides fragmentary but nonetheless useful evidence of considerable mixing between the Indigenous peoples and the descendants of European immigrants. A large mixed-ancestry population emerged, but it remains largely invisible in most sources because people self-identified as having either an Aboriginal or European origin. The 1901 census is less incomplete than other sources in pointing to children and descendants of blended or mixed European-Aboriginal couples. In this paper we review the practical and conceptual challenges and then assess the extent of racial mixing and the size of the mixed-race populations.

We begin with a short discussion of vocabulary. The territorial expanse claimed and administered by the Canadian state expanded considerably during our period. For convenience we refer to the entire territory that would later become Canada as ‘Canada’, even though much of it was held by the Hudson’s Bay Company until 1869 or existed as independent British colonies that joined Canada during the course of the nineteenth century. Thus, ‘Canada’ as it existed for the 1901 and subsequent censuses encompassed more territory and engaged with many more Indigenous peoples than were visited by the Canadian...

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