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Communicating Europe

Journals and European Integration 1939–1979

Daniele Pasquinucci, Daniela Preda and Luciano Tosi

This volume is dedicated to the debate on European unification developed between the end of World War II and 1979 in two types of magazines. The first type of magazines are those not exclusively dedicated to the «European» themes, but particularly significant for the impact they had in the cultural-political debate and in the concrete unfolding of the process of European integration; while the second type are militant magazines, belonging to the European and federalist area, whose proactive role was fundamental both for the theoretical elaboration of the ideas as the basis of the future of the European continent, and for the practical propaganda. All these publications contributed in different ways to the spread of knowledge of European integration, of its implications and of its political, social and economic consequences. No less important – and this is the third type of journals taken into consideration in the book – has been the birth and development of magazines directly sponsored by the Community institutions, whose action was framed within a real «European communication», made by the EC institutions, particularly the Commission in Brussels, since their origins.
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Does Europe Have a Future? Foreign Affairs and the Future of USA-Europe Relations, 1976-1979: Lucio Valent

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Does Europe Have a Future? Foreign Affairs and the Future of USA-Europe Relations, 1976-1979

Lucio VALENT

It is recognized that the period between 1976-1979 was a difficult phase for U.S. foreign policy. Washington had to cope with the controversial heritage of Kissinger’s tenure as presidential personal advisor. Having reshaped the American external policy, Kissinger put an end the US participation into the Vietnam War, accepted equal relations with the USSR and opened new relations with Popular China. But, at the same time, with his policy towards the Latin America or the Western Europe, he harmed the American position and image worldwide.

It was the mix of all these setbacks with economic and social troubles, which favoured the Democratic bid to the White House during the 1976 presidential campaign. The new President, James Earl “Jimmy” Carter Jr., inherited a simplified relationship between United States and Europe. During their White House years Nixon (and then Ford) and Kissinger had kept America aloof from Continental discussions on integration. When they decided to take part in the matter, they made clear that only if the Europeans themselves pushed directly for further integration would the United States have supported the goal. Doing that, Washington stated that its crucial task was to protect American affairs even more than before.1 Carter, on the ← 341 | 342 → contrary, supported “trilateralism” among the United States, Western Europe and Japan.2 During his presidential campaign he had repeatedly criticized Nixon and Kissinger for their focus on...

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