Pilgerarchitektur und bildliche Repräsentation in neuer Perspektive
Santiago – Rome – Jerusalem: Old Issues, New Proposals
In 1923, the American art historian, Arthur Kingsley Porter came to the conclusion that Romanesque sculpture constituted a long-distance international network of relations, in which the major works and artists were united by a chain consisting of journeys, contacts and reciprocal influence.1 According to this author the main centres of Romanesque art creation were linked by pilgrimage, along a system of roads which join Compostela to Jerusalem. The Pilgrims’ Roads to Santiago, Rome and Jerusalem, known and travelled from the end of the eleventh century, thus constitute the great routes of this new European artistic culture based on travelling.2 However, most historical and artistic criticism in recent decades, especially W. Sauerländer, has rejected Porter’s thesis, essentially denying the artistic importance of the roads of pilgrimage a priori, and arguing instead in favour of the individual local origins and their subsequent development as representing an absolute value.3 We therefore go from an internationalist to a territorial model, one that is unfortunately often narrowly provincial.
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