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Security, Democracy and Development

In the Southern Caucasus and the Black Sea Region


Edited By Ghia Nodia and Christoph H. Stefes

Since the early 1990s, the southern Caucasus and its larger neighbourhood, the Black Sea region, have experienced deep and sometimes painful transformations, including bloody conflicts. They have also become an arena of geopolitical and geoeconomic competition between great powers. This has attracted growing attention from social scientists. In this volume, authors from universities in Europe, the United States and the southern Caucasus focus on several of the most topical problems of the region, particularly how nascent states and societies grapple with the results of unresolved ethno-territorial conflicts and how they try to construct new civil societies from the cultural mosaic that they inherited from their Soviet past. How do elements of democracy and autocracy combine in the political regimes of the new states? Can the West have an effect on their internal development and, if so, how? How do the rich mineral resources of the Caspian region influence the development of the region’s economies and define the geopolitical standing of these countries?
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Georgian Migrants in Turkey: Reconstruction of Gender and Family Dynamics

Migration in Georgian Society


ABSTRACT: Drawn from a qualitative survey conducted in Kutaisi, Georgia and in Istanbul, Turkey, this chapter argues that migration tends to occupy a structural position in Georgian society. As a significant proportion of migrants are women (up to 65% in Greece and Turkey), many of whom leave behind spouses and children, it is worthwhile addressing the family and gendered outputs of migration. As Georgians enjoy particularly favourable conditions in regard to Turkish visa policies, we argue that Turkey/Georgia space has become a “circulatory territory” and that a highly gendered Turkish-Georgian “migratory system” is to be found. This generates specific behaviour patterns, norms and values that are mainly related to how to conciliate men’s social role and women de facto autonomy.

KEYWORDS: Georgia, Turkey, circulatory migration, gender, family

Within the context of increasingly complex international migration, the particular case of mobility between Georgia and Turkey significantly exemplifies a number of important global socio-demographic and geopolitical developments. These include, in particular, the increasing feminization of labour migration (Anthias and Lazaridis, 2000; Reysoo, 2004), this being a somewhat overlooked aspect of regional integration in the Black Sea area.

The demise of the Soviet Union profoundly upset the global geopolitical balance and the frameworks of social practices and perceptions amongst people in the post-Soviet space. Within this space, the Republic of Georgia is endowed with a particularly rich experience of social and economic changes, having once been one of the most prosperous republics in the Soviet...

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