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Scientific diasporas as development partners

Skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland: empirical evidence and policy responses- Preface by Jean-Baptiste Meyer

Edited By Gabriela Tejada Guerrero and Jean-Claude Bolay

Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries («brain drain») has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge («brain gain») to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination.

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Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII Foreword by Gabriela TEJADA and Jean-Claude BOLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX Preface by Jean-Baptiste MEYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Information about the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII Part I Background and Context Chapter 1 North-South Scientific Cooperation: a Challenge for Sustainable Development by Jean-Claude BOLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chapter 2 Scientific Diasporas, Migration and Development. A Perspective from Philosophy and Political Theory by Marie-Claire CALOZ-TSCHOPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter 3 Transnational Communities: Reflections on Definitions, Measurement and Contributions by Piyasiri WICKRAMASEKARA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Chapter 4 Highly Skilled Migrants in the Swiss Labour Market, with a Special Focus on Migrants from Developing Countries by Marco PECORARO and Rosita FIBBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 VI Part II Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications Chapter 5 The Colombian Scientific Diaspora in Switzerland by Gabriela TEJADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Chapter 6 The Indian Scientific Diaspora in Switzerland by Ibrahima Amadou DIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Chapter 7 The South African Scientific Diaspora in Switzerland by Francelle KWANKAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Chapter 8 Colombian, Indian and South African Scientific Diasporas in Switzerland. Concluding Remarks and Implications for Policy and Research by Gabriela TEJADA, Ibrahima Amadou DIA and Francelle KWANKAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Contents

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