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Part-Time Employment in Switzerland

Relevance, Impact and Challenges

Series:

Irenka Krone-Germann

In recent labour market history, one of the most striking features has been the increase in part-time employment. In Switzerland, one person out of three works part-time. 57% of women work part-time compared to only 13% of men. This disparity between women and men is one of the highest worldwide. At the same time, differences in the level of education between genders are disappearing. Given the magnitude of this phenomenon, new questions and challenges need to be addressed.
By presenting several econometrical models and taking into account historical and social gender focused behaviors, the author analyzes the impact of part-time employment on earning disparities, labour market segmentation and the probability of being promoted to a higher level of responsibility. While introducing ways to improve the situation for part-timers, the author examines innovative models of work organization such as job-sharing, top-sharing, functional flexibility and project team rotations. Beyond demonstrating the need for changes within public and private companies, the book also reveals concrete instruments on policy which could facilitate the implementation of such innovative models.

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Contents - XI

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XI Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX 1. Reality and challenges: an introductory note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Contribution and thesis overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Determinants and characteristics of non-standard working time arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Typologies of non-standard working arrangements . . . . . . 6 2.2.1 Numerical versus functional labour flexibility . . . . . 7 2.2.2 Current specific typologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.3 Notion of flexibility under current Swiss labour legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3 Flexible working arrangements explained by the core-periphery model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.1 Towards a core-periphery structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.2 Market segmentation and dual workforce . . . . . . . . . 19 2.4 Facts and numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 Part-time employment in Switzerland and the EU . . 22 2.4.2 Part-time work and economic branches . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4.3 Public and private sector differences and other characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.5 Supply and demand of flexible working time arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.5.1 Demand driven aspects of flexible time arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.5.2 Supply driven aspects of flexible time arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.5.3 Overview on motives to work part-time in Switzerland and the EU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6 Voluntary and involuntary flexible working arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 XII Part-Time Employment in Switzerland 2.7 Descriptive analysis from a gender perspective . . . . . . . . 39 2.7.1 Gender differences with regard to part-time employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.7.2 Preferred situation by female employees in Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.7.3 Towards equal opportunities for women and men? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.8 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3. Part-time employment and vertical segregation . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.2 Theoretical considerations on vertical segregation . . . . . . 50 3.2.1 Human capital model with a reduction of work activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.2.2 Lack of good part-time jobs due to the dual labour market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57...

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