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Discourse Analysis and Human and Social Sciences

Edited By Simone Bonnafous and Malika Temmar

What is the relationship between discourse analysis and its more recent companion disciplines such as sociology, political science and information and communication sciences, at their point of convergence between the symbolic and the social? How are relationships evolving between discourse analysis and disciplines like the literary studies, psychoanalysis and philosophy, which have been the constant companions of linguistics as these emerged and developed? What is the place and role of discourse analysis in Europe? These are some of the themes dealt with in this book. A team effort on the part of Centre d’Etude des Discours, Images, Texte, Ecrits, Communication (Céditec EA 3119), it aims not to present another view of the history and concepts of discourse analysis, but to encourage thinking and debate on interdisciplinary practices.

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IX. The role of psychoanalysis - Dominique DUCARD 141

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141 Chapter IX The role of psychoanalysis Dominique DUCARD Preliminaries The most precise definition of psychoanalysis given by Freud em- phasises the consistent and fundamental link between rehabilitation technique, therapeutic method and meta-psychological theory: Psychoanalysis is the name 1) of a method of investigating psychic processes which are inaccessible by other means; 2) a method of treating neurotic disor- ders, based on this investigation; 3) a set of ideas about psychology acquired by this means and gradually built up into a new scientific discipline.1 In other words, the episteme as theoretical knowledge is inseparable from techne, implying skill and the art of conducting a cure. Thus, the question of exporting analytical concepts and applying them to other domains and practices is posed right away. However, we should not forget that psychoanalysis has a bearing on anthropology and that the pathological clarifies what is “normal”: Freud’s thinking was nourished by the science of his time, as well as by mythologies and literature, and he sometimes found models here for comprehending and representing his own discoveries. Greek leg- end provides an example of this in the story of Oedipus, whose name was also given to a complex. In this way, Freud invited his detrac- tors, faced with the scandal of infant sexuality, to read the wonderful 1 Freud, 1923 (1984). 142 accounts which figuratively reveal the drama of human beings grap- pling with their impulses: If you have been led to suppose that everything recounted by psychoanalysis about early infant sexuality originates...

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