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Doctoral Education’s Reform in Switzerland and Norway

A Public Management Analysis

Lukas Baschung

Since the beginning of the 21 st century, doctoral education has gained an increasingly important place on the reform agenda of higher education institutions and also at national and European policy levels. By paying particular attention to the characteristics and role of recently emerged Doctoral and Research Schools, this book examines on a broad empirical basis what this reform consists of in two small but scientifically and economically successful countries – Switzerland and Norway. This reform also raises the question to what extent power shifts take place regarding the doctoral process. Thus, does the «Thesis director» lose his or her power at the expense of other actors? Observed shifts are characterised through components of varying Public Management Narratives. In order to consider existing variety, case studies have been chosen on the basis of four variables – type of national political system, size and type of higher education institution and type of scientific discipline. This methodological framework allows not only illustrating variation in the reform process and its causes but also the development of a new University Governance Scheme.

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Table of Content VI

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Table of Content Acknowledgements .................................................................................. V  Introduction............................................................................................... 1 Part 1: Setting the Field ........................................................................ 7  I. The Reform’s Initiation and First Analysis ........................................... 9  I.1. The Arrival on the Reform Agenda ........................................... 9 I.1.1. European Movements ......................................................... 9 I.1.2. National and Institutional Agenda Setting ....................... 16 I.2. Doctoral Education in Higher Education Studies .................... 18 I.2.1. Issues in Scientific Literature ........................................... 18 I.2.2. The Steering of Doctoral Education and Doctoral Schools ................................................................ 25 II. Research Design, Methodology, Collected Data and Data Treatment ................................................................................. 29 II.1. How is a European Trend Focussing on Governance to be Studied? ................................................................................. 29 II.1.1. Structured Doctoral Education in Europe: A Multilevel Issue ...................................................................... 30  II.1.2. Research Objectives and Choice of Methods .................. 30  II.1.3. Theoretical and Practical Aspects in the Selection of Case Studies ........................................................................... 32 II.1.4. Concrete Realisation ....................................................... 40 II.1.5. Doctoral Education and University Governance ............ 41 II.1.6. Discussion of Choices ..................................................... 43 II.2. Collected Data and their Treatment ........................................ 46 III. Theoretical framework ...................................................................... 51  III.1. Arguments for the Theoretical Framework’s Choice ............ 51  III.2. Three Public Management Narratives ................................... 54  III.2.1. New Public Management ............................................... 55  III.2.2. Network Governance ..................................................... 59  III.2.3. Neo-Weberian-State ....................................................... 60  III.2.4. The Relationship between the Narratives and Considerations of their Use ....................................................... 62 VIII III.3. Norwegian and Swiss Higher Education and the Narratives .......................................................................... 65 III.4. Redefining the Actors’ Framework ....................................... 67 Part 2: Empirical Results .................................................................... 71  IV. Doctoral Education in Switzerland and Norway .............................. 73  IV.1. Reforms and Issues of Reform .............................................. 73  IV.1.1. Fostering the New Generation of Academics ................ 74  IV.1.2. The Norwegian Doctorate: From an Honorary Title to an Asset for Society ....................................................... 76  IV.1.3. The Confederation’s Reinforced Interventions .............. 79  IV.1.4. The Evaluation...

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