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Globalising Women’s Football

Europe, Migration and Professionalization

Series:

Jean Williams

With an estimated 26 million female players globally (6 million based in Europe), the evolution of football has been dramatic. Growth in the women’s game has led to more widespread player migration as new forms of professionalism emerge. This work explores those patterns of movement into, and out of, Europe using new archival evidence and player interviews.

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Introduction: Europe, patterns of migration and the professionalization of women’s football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Post-war Europe and the rise of women’s football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. UEFA, European competitions and the growth of women’s football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Sources and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1. The academic literature on women’s football, professional leagues and migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2. Labour markets and women’s football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Micro, Meso and Macro Professionalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2. Micro Professionalism: Pioneering Individual Women Football Players . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Case study one: Sue Lopez, the temporary fooball migrant . . . . . . . 57 Case study two: Rose Reilly-Peralta, the long term migrant . . . . . . 62 Case study three: Vera Pauw, the European internationalist . . . . . . 64 Case study four: Gao Hong, the elite retired-player migrating in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3. Meso Professionalism: Club Football, Growing Internationalism and World Championships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 VIII Globalising Women’s Football 4. Macro Professionalism: Women’s Champions’ League and Women’s World Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 The UEFA Women’s Champions’ League . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 The Women’s Super League: the English model of professionalism . 75 5. Conclusion: From FIFA Women’s World Cup Germany 2011 to Canada 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Conclusion: Mobility, Professionalism and Football’s Changing Cultural Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Appendix I: Some Key Dates of European Union integration and expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Appendix II: Some Key Dates for European Association Football . . . 109 Appendix III: Summary of the European-wide growth in women’s football 1996-2003, by national association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 $SSHQGL[,9+RZ8()$KDVJURZQQHZO\DI¿OLDWHGIXOOPHPEHUV since 1954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Abbreviations and Acronyms AFC Asian Football Confederation AIAW Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women ALFA Asian Ladies Football...

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