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Les trajectoires de l’innovation technologique et la construction européenne / Trends in Technological Innovation and the European Construction

Des voies de structuration durable ? / The Emerging of Enduring Dynamics?

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Edited By Christophe Bouneau, David Burigana and Antonio Varsori

Le processus d’intégration européenne a été interconnecté avec science et technologie seulement apparemment au cours de la dernière décennie. Au contraire, dès les années 1950 les États membres de la CEE et ses potentiels candidats ont été engagés dans différents projets et tentatives de coopération dans les secteurs de la science et la technologie. Les gouvernements nationaux non seulement choisirent la voie intergouvernementale, mais ils essayèrent de profiter du cadre communautaire.
Ces tentatives ont produit d’autres projets débattus au niveau de la CEE sur la standardisation de l’automobile ou sur l’énergie nucléaire et les solutions à crise pétrolière, la coopération européenne a été expérimentée avec succès dans d’autres secteurs mais non seulement dans le « berceau » communautaire, tels que l’aéronautique ou les réseaux électriques.
Ces expériences et débats sur la construction européenne techno-scientifique ont été confrontés à la compétition transatlantique, et même à celle intra-européenne. En tous cas, comme les plus récents développements semblent prouver, l’Union européenne est destinée à jouer un rôle d’innovateur technologique. Grâce à une approche historique transnationale et interdisciplinaire, serions-nous capables de suggérer quel rôle, et selon quelles trajectoires ?
Ostensibly the European integration process has been interconnected with science and technology only in the last decade. On the other hand, since the 1950s EEC member states and would-be members have been engaged in several projects and attempts to cooperate in science and technology. National governments not only chose the intergovernmental way, but also they tried to take advantage of the communitarian framework.
These attempts produced some successes inside the EEC including the European Commission’s framework programme. Appart from some projects discussed at EEC level on automobile standardisation, nuclear energy and supplies during oil crisis, European cooperation in aircraft or electric power was successfully experimented but outside the communitarian networks.
These experiences and debates on a European techno-scientific construction encountered competition from across the Atlantic as well as within Europe. As the most recent developments seem to prove, the European Union has to play a role of technological innovator. Thanks to a transnational and interdisciplinary historical approach, are we able to suggest which role, and by which trends?

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ESPACE, AERONAUT1QUE ET AUTOMOB1LES :LES NOUVELLES FRONTIERES DE L'EUROPE /SPACE, AV1ATION AND CARS: EUROPE'S NEW FRONTIERS

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ESPACE, AERONAUTIQUE ET AUTOMOBILES : LES NOUVELLES FRONTIERES DE L'EUROPE SPACE, AVIATION AND CARS: EUROPE'S NEW FRONTIERS Automobile Standardisation in Europe Between Technological Choices and Neo-protectionism Sigfrido RAMiREZ PEREZ Universitä commerciale Luigi Bocconi 1. Introduction: Automotive Standardisation between States and Multinational Companies The 21st century is witnessing for the first time a serious attempt by states to reach inter-governmental agreements for global standards in the automobile industry. It was precisely an 25 August 2000 when entered into force the World Agreement' signed in 1998 under the common leadership of the European Economic Community, the USA and Japan. This agreement aimed to create a double-track procedure open to all countries to jointly elaborate technical standards related to safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and anti-theft protection of wheeled vehicles, equipments or parts of them: through harmonisation of existing national standards and by the setting up of single standards applied worldwide. The institution in charge of it is the World Forum for Harmonisation of Vehicle Regulations, also known as Working Party 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN- ECE), based in Geneva.2 The transformation of this European forum into an institution with global ambitions is a direct consequence of the importance of the EEC/EU in this path towards reaching public objectives through the political regulation of an industry dominated by giant corporations. The creation of international institutions to govern technical standardisation Global agreement concerning the establishing of global technical regulations or wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts, which can be fitted and/or...

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