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Europe 2020

Towards a More Social EU?

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Edited By Eric Marlier, David Natali and Rudi Van Dam

How can Europe 2020, the EU’s new Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, lead to a stronger Social EU with less poverty and greater social cohesion? This book by a number of eminent scholars and experts is the first to attempt to answer this question.
The adoption in June 2010 by EU leaders of a target to lift at least 20 million people out of the risk of poverty and exclusion by 2020 is an important step forward. However, delivering on this and the Union’s four other mutually reinforcing targets, and achieving the EU’s ambitious social objectives, raises many political and technical challenges. These are examined in depth in this book.
A key objective of the book is to take a critical look at and draw lessons from the past, 2000–2010 Lisbon Strategy. Another important objective is to explore the format and role of EU coordination and cooperation in the social field in the new EU governance framework, in a context marked by slow recovery after the global economic crisis. Finally, the book also makes proposals for the further reinforcement of this coordination and cooperation and for the improvement of the different instruments available at EU, national and sub-national levels.
The analysis and concrete proposals presented in the book will be invaluable to policy-makers, researchers and other stakeholders interested in contributing to building a more Social EU. They will help to encourage new ideas and innovative approaches.

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2. Mapping the Components of Social EU:A Critical Analysis of the Current Institutional Patchwork (Maurizio FERRERA) 45

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45 2. Mapping the Components of Social EU: A Critical Analysis of the Current Institutional Patchwork Maurizio FERRERA1 2.1 Introduction By the end of 2010 the welfare state will have celebrated its centen- nial in several European Union (EU) Member States. A genuine Euro- pean invention, public protection schemes were introduced to respond to the mounting “social question” linked to industrialisation. The dis- ruption of traditional, localised systems of work-family-community relations and the diffusion of national markets – based on free move- ment and largely unfettered economic competition within the territorial borders of each country – profoundly altered the pre-industrial structure of risks and need. The regulation of the new national labour markets, by establishing common standards, rights and obligations (through labour laws, unemployment and more generally social insurance, national labour exchanges etc.), was one of the fundamental institutional and political responses that European states gave to the big “social question” which confronted them. In his ground-breaking historical analysis of modern citizenship, T.H. Marshall suggested that the evolution of the national welfare state involved a two-fold process of fusion and of separation (Marshall, 1950). The fusion was geographical and entailed the dismantling of local privileges and immunities, the harmonisation of rights and obliga- tions throughout the national territory concerned, and the establishment of a level playing field (the equal status of citizens) within state borders. The separation was functional and entailed the creation of new sources of nationwide authority and jurisdiction as well as new specialised institutions for the implementation of that...

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