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Networks of Empire

The US State Department’s Foreign Leader Program in the Netherlands, France, and Britain 1950–70


Giles Scott-Smith

Exchange programmes have been a part of US foreign relations since the nineteenth century, but it was only during and after World War II that they were applied by the US government on a large scale to influence foreign publics in support of strategic objectives.
This book looks at the background, organisation, and goals of the Department of State’s most prestigious activity in this field, the Foreign Leader Program. The Program (still running as the International Visitor Leadership Program) enabled US Embassies to select and invite talented, influential ‘opinion leaders’ to visit the United States, meet their professional counterparts, and gain a broad understanding of American attitudes and opinions from around the country.
By tracking the operation of the Program in three key transatlantic allies of the United States a full picture is given of who was selected and why, and how the target groups changed over time in line with a developing US-European relationship. The book therefore takes a unique in-depth look at the importance of exchanges for the extension of US ‘informal empire’ and the maintenance of the transatlantic alliance during the Cold War.


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APPENDIX V. Archives 485


485 APPENDIX V Archives The Netherlands Public Archives Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken, The Hague Ministerie van Algemene Zaken, The Hague Nationaal Archief, The Hague Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague Letterkundig Museum, The Hague Special Collections, Royal Librairy, The Hague Centrale Informatie Punt, Tweede Kamer, The Hague Internationale Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Amsterdam Historisch Documentatiecentrum voor het Nederlandse Protestantis- me, Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam Theater Instituut, Amsterdam Universiteitsmuseum, Amsterdam Centraal Archief, University of Amsterdam Gemeentearchief Utrecht Gemeentearchief Rotterdam Katholieke Documentatie Centrum, Nijmegen Centraal Archief, University of Groningen Gemeentearchief Groningen Parlement Documentatie Centrum ( Networks of Empire 486 Private Archives Foreign Leader Grantee list 1950-69, US Embassy The Hague Papers of Peter Bogaers, Corstiaan Bos, Willem Dam, Andries Hoogerwerf, Franz Italianer, Joop Landré, Hendrik Reinink, Ynso Scholten, and Jan Vis. Belgium Public Archives NATO archive, Brussels France Public Archives Assembly of the Western European Union Archive, Paris United States Public Archives National Archives, College Park, MA Archive of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Special Collections, University of Arkansas Ford Foundation, New York Library of the Senate, Washington DC Papers of Allen W. Dulles, Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton Uni- versity Frontline Diplomacy, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project, Associa- tion for Diplomatic Studies and Training, Washington DC ( Private Archives Foreign Leader Grantee lists obtained through Freedom of Informa- tion Act Archive of the Government Affairs Institute, Meridian International, Washington DC Papers of Dean Mahin, Bill Maxwell, Sherry Mueller, Juri Slavik, and William Tyler.

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