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Europe and the Middle East

The hour of the EU?

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Giovanni Faleg

At a time when momentous changes are taking place in the Middle East, this volume provides a timely and critical assessment of the European Union (EU) foreign policy towards the region. The book collects revised and updated versions of the papers presented at the third Academic Forum on European Security, which took place at the Institute for European Studies (IHEE) in Strasbourg on March 30-31, 2010. The subtitle «the hour of the EU» was chosen to emphasize the moment of opportunity for the EU to actively influence a peaceful resolution of the major crises affecting the Middle East. Accordingly, contributions to this volume show the potential and the limits of the EU’s normative and soft-power-based diplomatic toolbox in trasforming its neighbourhood, focusing on four macro-areas: the Arab-Israeli conflict, the rise of Iran as a regional (and perhaps nuclear) power, the EU’s engagement in democracy promotion and EU-Turkey relations. Overall, this book aims at providing the reader willing to learn more about EU foreign policy’s achievements and weaknesses with a close-up on those four critical areas.

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Introduction ........................................................................................... 9 Giovanni Faleg PART ONE. EUROPE AND THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT The Business of Politics, the Politics of Business. Turning EU Economic Power into Political Influence in the Middle East Conflict ................................................................. 17 Rory Miller Europe and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Towards a New Diplomatic Engagement? ........................................ 27 Amnon Aran PART TWO. “FOR A FEW BARRELS MORE”: THE REALPOLITIK OF EU-IRAN RELATIONS Iran’s Pragmatic “Nuclear” Approach and the EU ......................... 35 Amir M. Kamel A New EU-Iranian Gas Partnership to Enhance European Energy Security? ............................................ 49 Antonio Dai Pra PART THREE. LOST BETWEEN SOFT AND HARD POWER: EU(ROPEAN) FOREIGN POLICY FROM MOROCCO TO AFGHANISTAN EU Democracy Promotion and Electoral Politics Between “Milieu Goals” and “Possession Goals”. The Cases of Lebanon and Morocco .................................................. 65 Silvia Colombo and Benedetta Voltolini Obama and Afghanistan. A Reality Check for European Expectations .................................... 81 Alessandro Marrone 8 PART FOUR. TURKEY’S MIDDLE EASTERN “GAMBLE” AND THE FUTURE OF EU-TURKEY RELATIONS “A Bridge over Troubled Waters”. Turkey’s Middle Eastern Policy and the West ............................................................................. 97 Giovanni Faleg The Turkish-Israeli Crisis. A Serious Gamble? .............................. 115 Sebastiano Sali Conclusion .......................................................................................... 131 Birte Wassenberg Postface and Acknowledgments ....................................................... 139 Martin W. Młodecki and Giovanni Faleg List of Contributors ........................................................................... 141 Glossary .............................................................................................. 145

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