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Creative Crises of Democracy

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Joris Gijsenbergh, Wim De Jong, Saskia Hollander and Tim Houwen

The «crisis of democracy» is as old as democracy itself. From the first democracy in Athens up until western democracy in the twenty-first century, criticism and complaints about the deficiencies of democracy have recurred. Pessimistic accounts typically focus on the destructive potential of these crises.
This collection of essays takes an alternative approach and draws attention to the creativity inherent in these «crises of democracy» – the potential for renewal and adaptation.
In the volume, historians, philosophers and political scientists from the Netherlands, Great Britain, Sweden and Austria tackle the three key questions prompted by this perspective: what moments of creativity can be discerned during crises of democracy in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries; how does democracy adapt during moments of crisis; and how does the notion of a democratic crisis affect political reality and vice versa?

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Acknowledgements ................................................................................ 9 Introduction ......................................................................................... 11 PART I. CRISIS: AN INHERENT CHARACTERISTIC OF DEMOCRACY? Mix the Balance! Democracy as a Paradoxical Process ................... 23 Evert van der Zweerde From Crisis to Democracy? An Exercise in Political Imagination ....................................................................... 47 Paul Lucardie The Problem of the Legitimacy of the People. The Rawlsian Strategy of Avoidance ................................................. 61 Marco Verschoor The “Epistemic Legitimacy” of Liberal Democracy as a Structural Constraint for Radical Politics ................................. 83 Daniel Hausknost PART II. PERFORMATIVITY AND PERCEPTION: THE POLITICAL USAGE OF CRISIS DISCOURSES Political Education and the Recurring Crisis of Democracy in the Netherlands (1945-2010) ................................ 111 Wim de Jong Populism as a Recurrent Phenomenon of Representative Democracy ........................................................... 133 Tim Houwen Crisis of Democracy as a Repudiation of Politics ........................... 161 Machiel Karskens Dilemmas of Democracy. Early Postwar Debates on European Integration in the Netherlands .................................. 183 Carla Hoetink and Karin van Leeuwen 8 PART III. DEMOCRATIC CREATIVITY Towards Total Democracy? The Concept of Democracy within the Swedish Social Democratic Party, 1921-1939 ............... 215 Anna Friberg Crisis of Democracy or Creative Reform? Dutch Debates on the Repression of Parliamentary Representatives and Political Parties, 1933-1940 ........................... 237 Joris Gijsenbergh Fixing Democracy? Political Representation and the Crisis of Democracy in Interwar Europe and the Netherlands ................ 269 Stefan Couperus The Making of Democratic Stability. The Case of Belgium after 1944 ....................................................... 291 Martin Conway From Militancy to Democracy? The Radical Left in West Germany in the 1970s .......................................................... 309 Jacco Pekelder Political Marches as Markers of Democratic Crisis ....................... 331 Wim van Meurs PART IV. CREATIVITY IN THE PRESENT CRISIS Public Spheres in a...

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