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Consensus and European Integration / Consensus et intégration européenne

An Historical Perspective / Une perspective historique

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Edited By Daniela Preda and Daniele Pasquinucci

Analysis of the formation and development of the consensus on European integration provides an interesting interpretative perspective for studying the history of the construction of a united Europe.
The authors of this volume examine the main reasons – ideological, political, cultural and economic – that have been advanced to encourage citizens to support the European project. The contributors also consider the initiatives proposed by the political and institutional actors involved for promoting this supranational project.
L’analyse de la formation et du développement d’un consensus pour l’intégration européenne représente une piste interprétative intéressante pour étudier l’histoire de la construction de l’Europe unie.
Dans ce volume, les auteurs examinent les principales raisons avancées – idéales, politiques, culturelles, économiques – pour obtenir le soutien des citoyens au projet européen. En outre, ils analysent les initiatives élaborées par les acteurs politiques et institutionnels impliqués dans le processus d’unification dans le but de promouvoir le projet supranational.

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Thirty Years of Challenges. The Green Parties’ Transnational Cooperation and Their Dilemmas and Choices over European Integration (Giorgio Grimaldi)

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197 Thirty Years of Challenges The Green Parties’ Transnational Cooperation and Their Dilemmas and Choices over European Integration Giorgio GRIMALDI Introduction: the Greens in Europe In the late 1970s and 1980s Green movements and parties emerged on the European political scene, with peculiar national characteristics, growing slowly from the ecological, anti-nuclear and peace mobilisations against NATO’s Euromissile decision on the stationing of Cruise missiles and the Pershing II in Western Europe. They developed across the Western part of the continent into a heterogeneous eco- pacifist movement, also as an expression of new social movements, postmodern or post-materialistic values and the new post-industrial middle class.1 In other words, they represented protest and the demands of new issues identified as the “new politics values of environmental quality, social quality, alternative life-styles, minority rights and participation” – in contrast with the “old politics values of economic growth, public order and national security”.2 They evolved from citizen initiative groups and local associations often united under national umbrella organisations. Since the beginning, Green and alternative movements have challenged the established political system and traditional political parties. This happened first at a local level and later at a national and European level, starting from the protest against pollution and nuclear power plants and the fight in defence of the environment, human health, animal rights – in a word, quality of life. The first Green national deputy to be elected in the world entered the Swiss parliament, in Lausanne in 1979. After the encouraging national ecological lists – which...

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