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Imagining Europe

Europe and European Civilisation as Seen from its Margins and by the Rest of the World, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

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Edited By Michael Wintle

What do people think ‘Europe’ means? What are its values, what are its borders, and what does it stand for? An important topic, without doubt. But the authors of this research collection are not so much interested in what Europe thinks of itself, but rather in what others think of it. They take a number of scenarios from recent history, and examine how Europe has appeared to people in other parts of the globe: America, China, the Arab world, for example. But they go further, and pose the question for some parts of the world which are ‘inside’ Europe, but which for one reason or another hover on the margins, like the Balkans, and Turkey. Furthermore they include the views about Europe held in parts of the continent which have without any doubt whatsoever belonged to Europe’s core, but which much of the rest of Europe, later, would like to forget about, or marginalise: Stalin’s Russia, and Hitler’s Germany. Most of the elements investigated here are central to the imagining of Europe, and despite many Europeans’ wish to distance themselves, such views should be recognised and taken up as an important and indispensable contribution to the debate about ‘What is Europe?’

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List of Illustrations 9

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9List of Illustrations Figure 1.1 Gerard van Keulen, World Map, “Paskaart vertonende alle bekende zeekusten en landen op den geheelen aardboodem of werelt”, Amsterdam, c. 1720. Figure 1.2 “The New World Map, Wizard’s Projection”, Christ- church, New Zealand, c. 1990. Figure 1.3 Ibn-Hawqal, World Map, c. 980. Figure 1.4 Al-Idrisi, World Map, 1456. From a twelfth-century original. Figure 1.5 Map of the world by Al-Qazwini, 1388. Figure 1.6 Islamic Chart of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, mid-sixteenth century. Figure 1.7 Liang Chou, World Map, 1593. Figure 1.8 Francesco Sanbiasi SJ, World Map, 1668. Figure 1.9 Chonha-do (Under Heaven Map), eighteenth century. Figure 1.10 Bankoku-Sozu Map of the World, 1645. Figure 1.11 Japanese Map of the World, Westernised, date unknown. Figure 1.12 Miguel d’Arenzo, “The Rape of America”, c. 1990. Figure 1.13 Europe and America reversed, frontispiece of the Massachusetts Magazine, 1790. Figure 1.14 “New Weight in the Balance”, Minneapolis Journal, 1898. Figure 1.15 “Spaniards Search Women on American Steamers”, press drawing by Frederick Remington, c. 1900. Figure 1.16 Daniel Chester French, the Continents: Europe, America, Africa, New York, 1907. Figure 1.17 Dave Brown, cartoon, “Bush’s New World Order Map”, 2003. Figure 5.1 “Turk or Greek”, from the Styrian “Tableau of Nationali- ties”, c. 1700. Figure 5.2 Dimitrie Cantemir, 1673-1723. Figure 5.3 The Greek/Moldavian/Romanian Risings of 1821. Figure 5.4 Dora d’Istria, 1828-1888. Imagining Europe 10 Figure 7.1 “Cricket in Shanghai”, 1891. Figure 7.2 Feng Zhen & Li Qihe, “Great Meeting”, Weidade huijian, 1951. Figure 7.3 Ding Hao, “Study the Soviet...

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