TROISIÈME PARTIE: MÉTHODES ET ÉCRITURES / PART III: METHODS AND WRITINGS
TROISIÈME PARTIE MÉTHODES ET ÉCRITURES _________ PART III METHODS AND WRITINGS 155 Digital History 2.0 Serge NOIRET European University Institute, Florence, Italy Introduction: a Few Web 2.0 Principles Tim O’Reilly, who is generally credited with having spawned the term ‘Web 2.0’, said: […] one of the central differences between the PC era and the Web 2.0 era is that once the internet becomes platform […], you can build applications that harness network effects, so that they become better the more people use them. I’ve used the phrase ‘harnessing collective intelligence’ to frame this phenomenon.1 With this point before us, we need to give thought to the changes that have come with the advent of new practices springing from the use of second-generation Web technologies in the humanities and, where we are concerned, in history. The more or less stable hypertext architecture which had previously been a critical feature of human and social science content on the Web – the Web as a compendium of texts and documents – is changing and giving way to new types of architecture which encourage interaction and knowledge exchange: a transformation is taking place in the roles of those who write and those who read. These new forms of Web architec- ture are a response to new needs for participation in Web network activities on platforms where multimedia information can be shared and participants can interact to create the kind of collective content that results when the roles of writers and readers mesh. ‘Crowdsourcing’, a neologism associated with...
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