Histoire et méthodologie / An historical and methodological approach
Edited By Corinne Doria and Gérard Raulet
Over the last sixty years, Europe has been built as a political, legal and economic space. Nevertheless, this process has not been accompanied by the construction of a European public sphere, despite the will of its founders, who wanted to create a European cultural area, recognized as such by its citizens. Now that, through the internet and social networks, the European public space is in the process of reconfiguring, it is time for a comprehensive reflection – both historical and methodological – on this space. When did a European public space appear for the first time in history? What were the institutions, events, developments from the Middle Ages, helped design and perceive Europe as a common sphere – a public space? How, and by whom, was occupied public space in Europe at different times in history? How geographical discoveries and encounters with other cultures have they strengthened the perception of Europe as a common and public? How will the European public space be set in the future? This book gathers essays from specialists (historians, philosophers, legal historians, sociologists) at Labex EHNE, Écrire une Histoire Nouvelle de l’Europe.
Partie I. Approches philosophiques de l’espace public européen / Part I. Philosophical Approaches to the Public Sphere
Partie i aPProches PhilosoPhiques de l’esPace Public euroPéen Part i PhilosoPhical aPProaches to the Public sPhere 21 Habermas and the Mutations of the Public Sphere An Overview within the Neo-liberal Context Gérard Raulet Université Paris-Sorbonne The significance of the writings of Habermas, along the lines of development from Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit to the essays on Europe, resides in the way they take into consideration successive historical and sociological paradigms. Among these paradigms, he places great emphasis on the continuity between the advent of the modern state, nineteenth-century nationalist and democratic processes of identification (which sparked off solidarity among citizens), and the project of trans- or supranational solidarity. To read Habermas from only the perspective of “the end of the nation-state” would be a simplification. Indeed, in his recent works on the constitutional issue in Europe, he only suggests that we should avoid any “reification of popular sovereignty”,1 which is something completely different. However, in no way does he recommend that we completely renounce the integration of the nation-state into a European framework. The challenge here is rather to create European structures which can take over from the state while possibly still relying on it, so that “the citizens of the one affected state cooperate with the citizens of the other affected states in making supranational law in accordance with a democratic procedure”.2 For, by contributing to the formation of this supranational community, “European nations” (here Habermas refers to Völker and not states [Staaten]) “ensure that...
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