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Estonians for Europe

National Activism for European Integration, 1922–1991


Pauli Heikkilä

Estonians for Europe provides a unique insight into nearly eighty years of the history surrounding European unification. Concentrating on Estonian aspirations for an integrative organization in international relations, the book illustrates a number of parallels and differences between commonly held narratives of twentieth-century European history.
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Chapter 2. Aleksander Warma Consolidating Europe

← 96 | 97 → CHAPTER 2


The Nazi plans of New Europe were nothing more than propaganda promises. Nevertheless, they worried the Western allies, who did not have anything equivalent to show for the resistance movements or exiled politicians. The Nazi plans gave an impetus to them to draft and present their visions of the future Europe.1

Aleksander Warma assumed this task among Estonians. He was born on June 22, 1890 in a coastal village in Northern Estonia. Specializing in international maritime law during his studies, he became an officer in the Estonian navy. Established in a career with the foreign ministry, he had worked at the Estonian consulate in Leningrad when he arrived in Helsinki, just a day before the outbreak of the Winter War on November 29, 1939. Warma was one of those who rejected the Soviet annexation: on September 24, 1940 in Stockholm, together with August Rei and Heinrich Laretei, he founded the Estonian Foreign Delegation for the government in exile. Warma stayed in Helsinki until September 1944.

This topic was discussed in Helsinki between Warma and the American Ambassador, H.F. Arthur Schoenfeld. Inspired by their talks, Warma drafted his own proposal and on December 13, 1942, he finished Rahu konsolideerimise probleemist sõjajärgses Euroopas, in English Questions relating to the consolidation of peace in post-war Europe. The plan was sent to the U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, via Chargé d’Affaires Robert McClintock.2 Warma included it in his memoirs, Diplomaadi Kroonika.3

Warma’s plan consisted of...

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