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European Union Foreign Policy and the Global Climate Regime


Simon Schunz

Ever since the first international negotiations on climate change in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading role in global climate politics.
This book engages in a longitudinal analysis of the EU’s participation in and impact on the United Nations climate regime.
It provides not only comprehensive insights into the evolution of EU foreign climate policy, but also a thought-provoking audit of the potential and limits of the EU’s influence in a major domain of global affairs.
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Chapter 3. From the Berlin Mandate to the Kyoto Protocol (1995–1997): EU Influence on the First Development of the Global Climate Regime


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EU influence on the first Development of the Global Climate Regime

This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of the EU’s influence attempts and their effects during a period that led to the substantial development of the global climate regime. It analyses the negotiations that were kicked off at COP 1 in March 1995, developed over eight meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) and COP 2 in Geneva, and were concluded with the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol at COP 3 in late 1997 (for an overview, see Annex II).

The years 1992 to 1995 had already been dominated by the political and socioeconomic adjustments to the fall of the iron curtain. These themes continued to dominate agendas also during the following years.

The end of the Cold War had left the United States as the “sole superpower” in an international system otherwise characterized by a crumbling of multi-ethnic states both in what had been the Soviet Union and in Central and Eastern Europe. This unique “unipolar moment” as well as the profound political and economic transformations in the two regions were bound to have implications for the functioning of global multilateral institutions. At the same time, the breakdown of the economic systems in the former Warsaw Pact states also had immediate environmental consequences. Highly pollutant and energy-intensive factories had to close, resulting in an immediate reduction of air pollution and, notably, greenhouse...

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