Show Less
Open access

European Union Foreign Policy and the Global Climate Regime

Series:

Simon Schunz

Ever since the first international negotiations on climate change in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading role in global climate politics.
This book engages in a longitudinal analysis of the EU’s participation in and impact on the United Nations climate regime.
It provides not only comprehensive insights into the evolution of EU foreign climate policy, but also a thought-provoking audit of the potential and limits of the EU’s influence in a major domain of global affairs.
Show Summary Details

← 310 | 311 →References

Primary sources

UN sources

AGBM. 1995a. Report of the AGBM on the work of its first session (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/2). 28 September.

AGBM. 1995b. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/MISC.1/Add.1). 29 September.

AGBM. 1995c. AGBM. Second session (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/4). 6 Oct.

AGBM. 1995d. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/Misc.1/Add.3). 2 November.

AGBM. 1995e. Report of the AGBM on the work of its second session (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1995/7). 21 November.

AGBM. 1996a. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Comments from Parties (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/MISC.1). 15 February.

AGBM. 1996b. Report of the AGBM on the work of its third session (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/5). 23 April.

AGBM. 1996c. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Comments from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/MISC.1, Add.3). 27 June.

AGBM. 1996d. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Proposals from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/Misc.2/Add.2). 15 November.

AGBM. 1996e. Synthesis of proposals by Parties (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/10). 19 November.

AGBM. 1996f. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Proposals from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/Misc.2/Add.4). 10 December.

AGBM. 1996g. Report of the AGBM on the work of its fifth session (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1996/11). 17 February 1997.

AGBM. 1997a. Framework compilation of proposals from Parties for the elements of a protocol or another legal instrument (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/2). 31 January.

AGBM. 1997b. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Proposals from Parties (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/Misc.1). 19 February.

AGBM. 1997c. Framework compilation of proposals from Parties for the elements of a protocol or another legal instrument. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/2. Add. 1). 27 February.

AGBM. 1997d. Report of the AGBM on the Work of Its Sixth Session. Negotiating text by the Chairman (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/3/Add.1). 22 April.

← 311 | 312 →AGBM. 1997e. Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Additional proposals from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/Misc.1/Add.3). 30 May.

AGBM. 1997f. AGBM: Seventh session – Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Additional proposals from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/MISC.1/Add.2). 30 May.

AGBM. 1997g. AGBM: Seventh session – Implementation of the Berlin Mandate. Comments from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/MISC.2/Add.1). 27 June.

AGBM. 1997h. Reports by the chairmen of the informal consultations conducted at the seventh session of the AGBM (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/INF.1). 22 Sept.

AGBM. 1997i. Completion of a protocol or another legal instrument. Consolidated negotiating text (doc. FCCC/AGBM/1997/7). 13 October.

Audio. 1996. Recording of the Proceedings of the Ministerial Segment of the Second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Intervention by U.S. Under-Secretary of State Timothy Wirth. 17 July.

Audio. 1997a. Recording of the 6th meeting of the Working Group “QELRO I” at the eighth session of the AGBM. 29 October.

Audio. 1997b. Recording of the final meeting of the Committee of the Whole at the Third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. 10–11 December.

Ban Ki-moon. 2009. Letter by the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. 20 March (available at http://media.ft.com/cms/1f749b5e-194c-11de-9d34-0000779fd2ac.pdf, last accessed 25 March 2009).

INC. 1991a. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its first session (doc. A/AC.237/6). 8 March.

INC. 1991b. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its third session (doc. A/AC.237/12). 25 October.

INC. 1992. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its sixth session (doc. A/AC.237/24). 6 January.

INC. 1993a. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its seventh session (doc. A/AC.237/31). 27 April.

INC. 1993b. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its eighth session (doc. A/AC.237/41). 20 October.

INC. 1994a. Matters relating to commitments (doc. A/AC.237/L.23). 27 Sept.

INC. 1994b. Matters relating to commitments (doc. A/AC.237/L.23/Add.1). 27 Sept.

INC. 1995. Report of the INC for a Framework Convention on Climate Change on the work of its eleventh session. Part one: Proceedings (doc. A/AC.237/91). 10 January.

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of 9 May 1992.

UN. 2009. UN High-Level Meeting on Climate Change – Programme. New York, 22–23 September.

← 312 | 313 →UNEP. 2012. The emissions gap report 2012. Nairobi: UNEP.

UNFCCC (Kyoto) Protocol: Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997.

UNFCCC. 1994. Matters relating to commitments. Comments from Parties or other member states (doc. A/AC.237/MISC.43). 7 December.

UNFCCC. 1995a. First Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Directory of Participants (doc. FCCC/1995/Inf.5/Rev.2). April.

UNFCCC. 1995b. Matters relating to commitments. Comments from Parties and other member states (doc. FCCC/CP/1995/Misc.1). 9 March.

UNFCCC. 1995c. Review of the adequacy of Article 4, paragraph 2 (a) and (b). Proposed elements of a mandate for consultations on commitments in Article 4, paragraph 2 (a) and (b) (doc. FCCC/CP/1995/CRP.1). 2 April.

UNFCCC. 1995d. Report of the COP on its first session (doc. FCCC/CP/1995/7). 24 May.

UNFCCC. 1995e. Report of the COP on its first session. Addendum (doc. FCCC/CP/1995/7/Add.1). 6 June.

UNFCCC. 1996. Report of the COP on its second session – The Geneva Ministerial Declaration (doc. FCCC/CP/1996/15/Add.1). 29 Oct.

UNFCCC. 1997a. Adoption of a protocol or another legal instrument: Fulfilment of the Berlin Mandate. Revised text under negotiation (doc. FCCC/CP/1997/2). 12 November.

UNFCCC. 1997b. Non-paper by the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (doc. FCCC/1997/CRP.2). 7 December.

UNFCCC. 1997c. Draft text by the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (doc. FCCC/CP/1997/CRP.4). 9 December.

UNFCCC. 1997d. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. final draft by the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole (doc. FCCC/CP/1997/CRP.6). 10 December.

UNFCCC. 1997e. Report of the COP on its third session. Addendum (doc. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1). 25 March 1998.

UNFCCC. 1999a. Report of the COP on its fourth session. Addendum Part Two (doc. FCCC/CP/1998/16/Add.1). 25 January.

UNFCCC. 1999b. Mechanisms Pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Synthesis of proposals by Parties on principles, modalities, rules and guidelines (doc. FCCC/SB/1999/8). 28 September.

UNFCCC. 1999c. Mechanisms Pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Synthesis of proposals by Parties on principles, modalities, rules and guidelines. Addendum (doc. FCCC/SB/1999/8 Add.1). 24 October.

UNFCCC. 1999d. Draft report of the Conference of the Parties on its fifth session (doc. FCCC/CP/1999/L.1). 3 November.

UNFCCC. 2000. Note by the President of COP 6. 23 November.

UNFCCC. 2001a. Implementation of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action (doc. FCCC/CP/2001/L.7). 24 July.

← 313 | 314 →UNFCCC. 2001b. The Marrakech Accords and the Marrakech Declaration (available at http://unfccc.int/cop7/documents/accords_draft.pdf, last accessed 24 July 2009).

UNFCCC. 2002a. The Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development. Informal Proposal by the President. 28 October.

UNFCCC. 2002b. The Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development (doc. FCCC/CP/2002/L.6/Rev.1). 1 November.

UNFCCC. 2003. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its ninth session. Part one: Proceedings (doc. FCCC/CP/2003/6). 30 March 2004.

UNFCCC. 2005a. Dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention (doc. FCCC/CP/2005/L.4/Rev.1). 9 December.

UNFCCC. 2005b. Consideration of commitments for subsequent periods for Parties included in Annex I to the Convention under Article 3, paragraph 9, of the Kyoto Protocol (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2005/L.8/Rev.1). 9 December.

UNFCCC. 2005c. Consideration of commitments for subsequent periods for Parties included in Annex I to the Convention under Article 3, paragraph 9, of the Kyoto Protocol (doc. Decision-/CMP.1). 9 December.

UNFCCC. 2006a. Five-year programme of work on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change (doc. FCCC/SBSTA/2006/L.26). 14 Nov.

UNFCCC. 2006b. Further commitments for Annex I Parties and Programme of work (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2006/L.4). 14 November.

UNFCCC. 2006c. Review of the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 9. Proposal by the President (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2006/L.7). 17 November.

UNFCCC. 2007a. Thirteenth Conference of the Parties. List of Participants. 14 December.

UNFCCC. 2007b. Report of the AWG-KP on its resumed fourth session (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/5). 17 February 2008.

UNFCCC. 2007c. Dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention: Fourth workshop (doc. Dialogue WP 6 (2007)). 13 July.

UNFCCC. 2007d. Dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention: Fourth workshop – Submission from Portugal on behalf of the European Community and its member states (doc. Dialogue Working Paper 10 (2007)). 16 August.

UNFCCC. 2007e. Dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention: Fourth workshop – Submission from AOSIS (doc. Dialogue WP 14 (2007)). 24 August.

UNFCCC. 2007f. Dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention: Fourth workshop – Submission from Portugal on behalf of the European Community and its member states (doc. Dialogue WP 16 (2007)). 30 August.

← 314 | 315 →UNFCCC. 2007g. AWG-KP, Fourth Session – Analysis of mitigation potentials and identification of ranges of emission reduction objectives of Annex I Parties (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/L.4). 31 August.

UNFCCC. 2007h. Report on the dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climate change by enhancing implementation of the Convention (doc. FCCC/CP/2007/4). 19 October.

UNFCCC. 2007i. Further views on the development of a timetable to guide the completion of the work of the AWG-KP – Submission from Portugal on behalf of the European Community and its Member States (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/MISC.6). 22 November.

UNFCCC. 2007j. Scope and content of the second review under Article 9 of the Kyoto Protocol and the preparations required for conducting the review. Addendum (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2007/MISC.1/Add.2). 1 December.

UNFCCC. 2007k. Review of work programme, methods of work and schedule of future sessions. Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2007/L.6/Rev.1). 13 December.

UNFCCC. 2007l. Review of the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 9. Proposal by the President (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2007/L.8). 14 December.

UNFCCC. 2007m. The Bali Roadmap – Address to closing plenary by His Excellency Mr. Rachmat Witoelar. Bali, 15 December.

UNFCCC. 2007n. Bali Action Plan (doc. Decision-/CP.13). December.

UNFCCC. 2008a. Views regarding the work programme of the AWG-LCA under the Convention (docs. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/MISC.1 and ADD 1–3). Various dates.

UNFCCC. 2008b. Views and information on the means to achieve mitigation objectives of Annex I Parties. Submissions from Parties (docs. FCCC/AWG/2008/MISC.1 and ADD 1–3). Various dates.

UNFCCC. 2008c. Ideas and proposals on the elements contained in paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan. Submissions from Parties (docs. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/MISC.2 and Add. 1). Various dates.

UNFCCC. 2008d. Ideas and proposals on paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan – Revised note (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/16/Rev.1). 15 January 2009.

UNFCCC. 2008e. AWG-LCA. Scenario note on the first session – Note by the Chair (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/2). 13 March.

UNFCCC. 2008f. Analysis of means to reach emission reduction targets and identification of ways to enhance their effectiveness and contribution to sustainable development. Views and information on the means to achieve mitigation objectives of Annex I Parties. Submissions from Parties (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/MISC.1/Add.2). 20 March.

UNFCCC. 2008g. AWG-LCA First session. Development of a work programme (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.2). 4 April.

UNFCCC. 2008h. Analysis of means to reach emission reduction targets and identification of ways to enhance their effectiveness and contribution to sustainable development (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/L.2). 4 April.

← 315 | 316 →UNFCCC. 2008i. Enabling the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action now, up to and beyond 2012 (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.5). 5 June.

UNFCCC. 2008j. Work programme for 2009 – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.4). 11 June.

UNFCCC. 2008k. Enabling the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action now, up to and beyond 2012 – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.7). 27 August.

UNFCCC. 2008l. Consideration of a work programme for 2009 – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.8). 27 August.

UNFCCC. 2008m. Ideas and proposals on paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/16). 20 November.

UNFCCC. 2008n. Work programme for 2009 – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.10). 10 December.

UNFCCC. 2008o. Work programme for 2009 – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/L.19). 10 December.

UNFCCC. 2008p. Report to the Conference of the Parties at its fourteenth session on progress made – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2008/L.11). 10 December.

UNFCCC. 2008q. Means, methodological issues, mitigation potential and ranges of emission reduction objectives, and consideration of further commitments – Draft conclusions (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/L.18). 10 Dec.

UNFCCC. 2009a. Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA. Draft conclusions and Addendums (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/L.7+ add. 1–9). Various dates.

UNFCCC. 2009b. Fulfilment of the Bali Action Plan and components of the agreed outcome (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/4). 18 March.

UNFCCC. 2009c. Report of the AWG-LCA on its fifth session (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/5). 13 May.

UNFCCC. 2009d. Report of the AWG-KP on its seventh session (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/5). 13 May.

UNFCCC. 2009e. Draft protocol to the Convention prepared by the Government of Japan for adoption (doc. FCCC/CP/2009/3). 13 May.

UNFCCC. 2009f. A proposal for amendments to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 3, paragraph 9 (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/7). 14 May.

UNFCCC. 2009g. Negotiating text. (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/8). 19 May.

UNFCCC. 2009h. Ideas and proposals on the elements contained in paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan – Submissions from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/MISC.4/Add.1). 22 May.

UNFCCC. 2009i. Ideas and proposals on the elements contained in paragraph 1 of the Bali Action Plan – Submissions from Parties. Addendum (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/MISC.4/Add.2). 31 May.

UNFCCC. 2009j. Revised negotiating text (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1). 22 June.

← 316 | 317 →UNFCCC. 2009k. Documentation to facilitate negotiations among Parties. Addendum. Proposed amendments to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 3, paragraph 9 (doc. FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.1). October.

UNFCCC. 2009l. Draft report of the AWG-LCA on its seventh session (doc. FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/L.4). 3 November.

UNFCCC. 2009m. Adoption of the Copenhagen Agreement. Draft Decision 1/CP.15 of 27 November (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/08/copenhagen-climate-change, last accessed 25 June 2010).

UNFCCC. 2009n. Chair’s Proposed Draft Text on the Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention. Version 11 Dec., 8:30 am (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009o. Chair’s Proposed Draft Text on the Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. Version 11 Dec., 9:30 am (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009p. AWG-KP draft texts. Chair’s Proposed Draft Text on the Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. Version 15 Dec., 5:30 pm (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009q. Untitled draft negotiation text of 18 December, 1:00 pm (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009r. Copenhagen Accord. Draft of 18 December, 4:30 pm (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009s. Copenhagen Accord. Draft of 18 December, 7:30 pm (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009t. Copenhagen Accord. Draft of 18 December, 10 pm (on file with author).

UNFCCC. 2009u. Copenhagen Accord (doc. Decision-/CP.15). 19 December.

UNFCCC. 2009v. Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA (doc. Draft decision-/CP.15). 19 December.

UNFCCC. 2009w. Outcome of the work of the AWG-KP (doc. Draft decision-/CMP.5). 19 December.

UNFCCC. 2010a. Information provided by Parties to the Convention relating to the Copenhagen Accord. 2 Feb. (available at http://unfccc.int/home/items/5262.php, last accessed 10 February 2010).

UNFCCC 2010b. Outcome of the work of the AWG-KP at its fifteenth session (doc. -/CMP.6). 10 Dec.

UNFCCC 2010c. Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA (doc. -/CP.16). 10 Dec.

UNFCCC. 2011a. Establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (doc. Decision 1/CP.17). 11 Dec.

UNFCCC. 2011b. Report of the COP serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its seventh session (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2011/10/Add.1). 12 March 2012.

UNFCCC. 2011c. Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA (doc. 2/CP.17). 11 Dec.

← 317 | 318 →UNFCCC. 2012. Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 3, paragraph 9 (doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2012/L.9). 8 Dec.

UNFCCC 2013a. Agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan (doc. FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add. 1 – 1/CP18). 28 Feb.

UNFCCC. 2013b. Advancing the Durban Platform (FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add.1–2/CP18). 28 Feb.

UNFCCC. Provisional Rules of Procedure of the UNFCCC COP (available at http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop2/02.pdf, last accessed 10 October 2011)

UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). 1988. Resolution 43/53. 6 Dec.

UNGA. 1989a. Protection of Global Climate for Current and Future Generations of Mankind (doc. Resolution A/RES/43/53). 27 January.

UNGA. 1989b. Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind (doc. Resolution A/44/862). 19 December.

UNGA. 1990. Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind (doc. Resolution 45/212). 21 December.

UNGA. 1990. Resolution 45/212. 21 December.

UNGA. 2007. UNGA 61st session: Informal Thematic Debate – Climate Change as a Global Challenge. 1 August.

UNSD. 2009. United Nations Statistics Division, Millennium Development Goals Indicators: Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 ), thousand metric tons of CO2. New York: United Nations.

Video 12 Dec. 2007. Intervention by H.E. Mr. Jean-Louis Borloo. Joint High-level Segment, 12 Dec. (available at rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unfccc/2007/hl/unfccc071212pm1-hls-orig.rm?start=03:06:50&end=03:13:49, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Video 28 Sept. 2009. AWG-LCA Opening Plenary. Bangkok. (available at http://unfccc2.meta-fusion.com/kongresse/090928_AWG_Bangkok/templ/ply_page.php?id_kongresssession=2018&player_mode=isdn_real, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Video 2 Oct. 2009. AWG-KP Plenary. Bangkok. (available at http://unfccc2.meta-fusion.com/kongresse/090928_AWG_Bangkok/templ/ply_page.php?id_kongresssession=1991&player_mode=isdn_real, last accessed 25 June 2010)

Video 15 Dec. 2009, part 1. COP plenary session. Bali. (available at rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unfccc/2007/cop/unfccc-071215am-cop13-eng.rm, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Video 15 Dec. 2009, part 2. COP plenary session. Bali. (available at rtsp://webcast.un.org/ondemand/conferences/unfccc/2007/cop/unfccc-071215am3-cop13-eng.rm, last accessed 25 June 2010).

EU sources

Barroso, J. 2008. Speech by the President of the European Commission – Europe’s Climate Change Opportunity. Lehman Brothers. London. 21 Jan.

← 318 | 319 →Council of the EU. 1989. Council Resolution on the greenhouse effect and the Community (doc. 89/C 183/03). Luxembourg, 21 June.

Council of the EU. 1994a. Council Decision of 15 December 1993 concerning the conclusion of the UNFCCC (doc. 94/69/EC).

Council of the EU. 1994b. 1817th Council meeting – Environment. Brussels, 15–16 December.

Council of the EU. 1996. 1939th Council meeting – Environment. Brussels, 25–26 June.

Council of the EU. 1997. Meeting Document (doc. CONS/ENV/97/1 Rev.1). Brussels, 3 March.

Council of the EU. 2002. Decision of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the EC, of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder (doc. 2002/358/EC).

Council of the EU. 2006. 2773rd Council Meeting – Environment. Brussels, 18 December.

Council of the EU. 2007a. EU objectives for the further development of the international climate regime beyond 2012. Brussels, 21 February.

Council of the EU. 2007b. 2826th Council meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 30 October.

Council of the EU. 2008a. 2874th Council Meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 5 June.

Council of the EU. 2008b. 2008 EU-US Summit Declaration. Brdo, Slovenia, 10 June.

Council of the EU. 2008c. 2898th Council Meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 20 October.

Council of the EU. 2008d. Energy and climate change – Elements of the final compromise. Brussels, 12 December.

Council of the EU. 2009a. South Africa-EU Strategic Partnership. Joint Communiqué from the Ministerial Troika Meeting. Kleinmond, 16 January.

Council of the EU. 2009b. 2928th Council meeting – Environment. Brussels, 2 March.

Council of the EU. 2009c. The Prague meeting of EU Heads of State and Government with the US President – EU Press Lines. Prague, 5 April.

Council of the EU. 2009d. Council adopts climate-energy legislative package. Press release. Brussels, 6 April.

Council of the EU. 2009e. 12th Africa-EU Ministerial Troika meeting. Luxembourg, 28 April.

Council of the EU. 2009f. Submission by the Czech Republic on behalf of the EC and its member states: A negotiation text for consideration at AWG-LCA 6. Prague, 28 April.

Council of the EU. 2009g. 18th EU-Japan Summit. Joint Press Statement. Prague, 4. May.

Council of the EU. 2009h. Joint Statement EU-Rio Group. Prague, 13 May.

← 319 | 320 →Council of the EU. 2009i. 11th EU-China Summit. Joint Press Communiqué. Prague, 20 May.

Council of the EU. 2009j. Republic of Korea-EU Summit. Joint Press Statement. Seoul, 23 May.

Council of the EU. 2009k. 2948th Economic and financial Affairs Council meeting – Council conclusions on international financing for climate action. Luxembourg, 9 June.

Council of the EU. 2009l. 2967th Council meeting – Economic and financial Affairs. Luxembourg, 20 October.

Council of the EU. 2009m. 2968th Environment Council meeting – Council Conclusions on EU position for the Copenhagen Climate Conference. Luxembourg, 21 October.

Council of the EU. 2009n. Joint Statement of the 12th EU-China Summit. Nanjing, 30 November.

Council of the EU. 2010a. 3021st Council meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 11 June.

Council of the EU. 2010b. 3036th Council meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 14 October.

Council of the EU. 2011a. 3118th Council meeting – Environment. Luxembourg, 10 October.

Council of the EU. 2011b. Commission Communication on a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 – Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 22 June.

Council of the EU. 2011c. 3106th Foreign Affairs – Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 18 July.

Council of the EU. 2012. 3194th Environment Council Meeting. Luxembourg, 25 Oct.

Council of the EU. 2013. Council conclusions on EU Climate Diplomacy. Foreign Affairs Council Meeting. Luxembourg, 24 June.

EEA. 1997. Climate Change in the European Union. Environmental Issues Series, No. 2. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.

EEA. 2007. Graph: Emissions per capita by country, 2007 (available at http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/pivotapp/pivot.aspx?pivotid=475, last accessed 22 April 2010).

EEA. 2008. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2008. Country profiles (available at http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_ report_2008_5, last accessed 22 April 2010).

EEA. 2009. Change in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe between the base years and 2005, compared to Kyoto targets for 2008–2012 (available at http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/change-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-europe-between-the-base-years-and-2005-compared-to-kyoto-targets-for-2008–2012, last accessed 22 April 2010).

EEAS and European Commission. 2011. Towards a renewed and strengthened EU climate diplomacy. Joint reflection paper. Brussels, 9 July.

← 320 | 321 →EU. 2010. Press Conference at Tianjin UN Climate Negotiations. 6 Aug. 2010.

European Commission. 1997. Communication: Climate Change – The EU approach to Kyoto (doc. COM (97) 481 final). Brussels, 1 October.

European Commission. 2003. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: European Union and United Nations: the choice of multilateralism (doc. COM (2003) 526). Brussels, 10 Sept.

European Commission. 2005. Communication from the Commission: Winning the Battle against Global Climate Change (doc. COM (2005) 35 final). Brussels, 9 February.

European Commission. 2006a. European Commission, External Relations Directorate General, Panorama du Service extérieur. Brussels.

European Commission. 2006b. Multilateral environmental agreements to which the EC is a contracting party or a signatory. Brussels, 27 October.

European Commission. 2007a. Working with Developing Countries to tackle Climate Change. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.

European Commission. 2007b. Communication: Limiting Global Climate Change to 2° Celsius: The way ahead for 2020 and beyond (doc. COM (2007) 2). Brussels, 10 January 2007.

European Commission. 2008a. European Climate Change Programme. Introduction (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/eccp.htm, last accessed 25 July 2009).

European Commission. 2008b. Visit of President Barroso to China (24–26 April 2008) (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/china.htm, last accessed 23 March 2010).

European Commission. 2008c. Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020. (doc. COM (2008) 17). 23 January 2008.

European Commission. 2008d. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community (doc. COM (2008) 30 final). Brussels, 23 January.

European Commission. 2008e. EU-India Joint Press Communiqué. Marseilles, 29 September.

European Commission. 2008f. Joint Work Programme, EU-India Co-Operation On Energy, Clean Development And Climate Change. Marseilles, 29 Sept.

European Commission. 2009a. The EU Green Diplomacy Network (available at http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/environment/gdn/docs/gdn_more_en.pdf, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009b. Bilateral relationsCanada. (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_canada_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

← 321 | 322 →European Commission. 2009c. Bilateral relationsUSA. (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_usa_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009d. Bilateral relationsJapan. DG (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_japan_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009e. Bilateral and regional cooperation – China (available http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_china_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009f. Bilateral and regional cooperationIndia. (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_india_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009g. Regional dialogue and cooperation: ASEM. (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/relations_asem_en.htm, last accessed 5 August 2009).

European Commission. 2009h. Non-Paper: Green Elements from Member States’ Recovery Plans. Undated (available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/pdf/recovery_plans.pdf, last accessed 23 October 2009).

European Commission. 2009i. Communication from the Commission: Towards a comprehensive climate change agreement in Copenhagen (doc. COM (2009) 39 final). Brussels, 28 January.

European Commission. 2009j. EU-Russia summit. Khabarovsk, 21–22 May.

European Commission. 2009k. Communication from the Commission: Stepping up international climate finance: A European blueprint for the Copenhagen deal (doc. COM (2009) 475/3). Brussels, 10 September.

European Commission. 2009l. 2009 EU-U.S. Summit Declaration. 3 November.

European Commission. 2009m. India-EU Joint Statement. Brussels, 6 Nov.

European Commission. 2010. Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage. Brussels, 25 May.

European Commission. 2011. Communication from the Commission: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (doc. COM(2011) 112 final). Brussels, 8 March.

European Commission. 2013a. The 2015 International Climate Change Agreement: Shaping international climate policy beyond 2020 (doc. COM(2013) 167 final). Brussels, 26 March.

European Commission. 2013b. Reducing emissions from the aviation sector. Website (available at http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation/index_en.htm, last accessed 23 February 2013).

European Council. 1988. Presidency conclusions – Annex I: Declaration on the Environment. Rhodes, 2–3 December.

European Council. 1990. Conclusions of the Presidency. Dublin, 25–26 June.

← 322 | 323 →European Council. 2003. A Secure Europe in a Better World, European Security Strategy. Brussels, 12 December.

European Council. 2005. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 22–23 March.

European Council. 2007. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 8–9 March.

European Council. 2008a. Climate Change and International Security. Paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council. Brussels, 14 March (Doc. S 113/08).

European Council. 2008b. Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy – Providing Security in a Changing World. Doc. S407/08. Brussels, 11 December.

European Council. 2009a. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 19–20 March.

European Council. 2009b. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 29–30 October.

European Council. 2009c. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 10–11 December.

European Council. 2010. Presidency conclusions. Brussels, 17 June.

European Parliament. 2003. Summary Note by the Secretariat. Kyoto Protocol Visit to Moscow. 17–19 September 2003. Brussels. 1 October. (available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/comparl/envi/pdf/delegations/1999-2004/moscow.pdf, last accessed 23 July 2009).

European Parliament. 2007. Climate Change: EP temporary committee to be set up. 19 April.

European Parliament. 2008. Overview of texts adopted on 17 December 2008.

European Parliament/Council of the European Union. 2001. Directive of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market (doc. 2001/77/EC).

European Parliament/Council of the European Union. 2003. Directive of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (doc. 2003/87/EC).

European Parliament/Council of the European Union. 2004. Directive of 27 October 2004 amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, in respect of the Kyoto Protocol’s project mechanisms (doc. 2004/101/EC).

European Parliament/Council of the European Union. 2006. Directive of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (doc. 2006/32/EC).

European Parliament/Council of the European Union. 2009. Directive of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community (doc. 2009/29/EC).

Dimas, S. 2009. Climate Change in times of economic crisis – the path to a successful climate conference in Copenhagen. Speech by the EU Environment Commissioner. Humboldt University, Berlin. 6 July.

← 323 | 324 →German Foreign Ministry. 2011. Climate change – a foreign policy challenge. (available at http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/GlobaleFragen/Klima/Aussenpolitische-Dimension-node.html, last accessed 20 Jan. 2012).

Swedish Presidency. 2009. Comparability of developed countries mitigation efforts. Undated paper (available at http://www.se2009.eu/polopoly_fs/1.10668!menu/standard/file/COM%20Note%20on%20comparability%20%20IMEnvM%20%C3%85re.pdf, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Other primary sources

AOSIS. 2009. Climate Change – The Science. Website (available at http://www.sidsnet.org/aosis/issues.html, last accessed 20 October 2009).

APEC. 2009. Leaders’ Declaration. The 17th APEC economic leaders’ meeting: “Sustaining growth, connecting the region”. Singapore, 14–15 Nov.

APP (Asia-Pacific Partnership). 2009. Website (available at http://www.asiapacificpartnership.org/english/default.aspx, last accessed 24 July 2009).

ASEM. 2008. Beijing Declaration on Sustainable Development. Beijing, 24–25 October.

ASEM. 2009. First ASEM Ministerial Conference on Energy Security. Brussels, 17–18 June (available at http://www.aseminfoboard.org/Calendar/MinisterialMeetings/?id=256, last accessed 13 March 2010).

Australian Government. 2008. Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme: Australia’s Low Pollution Future White Paper Executive Summary. Canberra, 15 December.

Brown, G. 2009. Transcript of the Prime Minister’s press conference at the Copenhagen summit on climate change. 18 Dec. (available at http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page21850, last accessed 22 Dec. 2009).

CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting). 2009. Port of Spain Climate Change Consensus: The Commonwealth Climate Change Declaration. 28 November.

Clinton, W., and A. Gore. 1993. The Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, October (available at http://www.gcrio.org/USCCAP/toc.html, last accessed 15 April 2009).

Clinton, H. 2009. Remarks at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference. Copenhagen, 17 December.

De Boer, Y. 2010. Letter to the UNFCCC secretariat. December 2009 (on file with author).

Department of State of the United States. 1994. Climate Action Report. Submission of the United States of America Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Washington, September.

Environment Canada. 2007. Regulatory Framework for Air Emissions. Website (available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/doc/media/m_124/toc_eng.htm, last accessed 22 June 2009).

G-5. 2008. G5 Statement Issued by Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa on the occasion of the Hokkaido Toyako Summit. Sapporo, 8 July.

← 324 | 325 →G-8. 1997. Summit of the Eight: Communiqué. Denver, 20–22 June.

G-8. 2005. The Gleneagles Communiqué. Undated.

G-8. 2007. Chair’s Summary. Heiligendamm, 8 June.

G-8. 2008. Chair’s summary. Hokkaido, Toyako, 9 July.

G-8. 2009a. The Summit. Website of the Italian G-8 Presidency.

G-8. 2009b. Responsible Leadership for a Sustainable FutureG-8 Leaders’ Declaration. L’Aquila, 8 July.

G-20. 2008. Declaration – Summit on financial markets and the world economy. Washington, DC, 15 November.

G-20. 2009a. Global plan for recovery and reform: the Communiqué from the London Summit. London, 2 April.

G-20. 2009b. Leaders’ Statement: The Pittsburgh Summit. Pittsburgh, 24–25 September.

G-20. 2009c. Meeting of finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors – Communiqué. London, 7 November.

Hague Conference. 1989. Declaration of The Hague. 11 March.

International Energy Agency (IEA). 2011. World Energy Outlook 2011. Paris: IEA.

IPCC. 1990. IPCC first Assessment Report, ed. J.T. Houghton, G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 1995a. IPCC Second Assessment: Climate Change 1995. A Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 1995b. WG I: The Science of Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers, ed. J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira filho, B.A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 1995c. WG III: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change, ed. J.P. Bruce, H. Lee, and E.F. Haites. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 2001a. Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 2001b. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 2006. Principles Governing IPCC Work. April 2006 (available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ipcc-principles/ipcc-principles.pdf, last accessed 28 April 2008).

IPCC. 2007a. Summary for Policymakers of the Synthesis Report of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Draft of 16 Nov. 2007 (available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf, last accessed 22 April 2008).

IPCC. 2007b. Climate Change 2007: Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Geneva: IPCC.

← 325 | 326 →IPCC. 2007c. Annex I: Glossary. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

IPCC. 2008. About IPCC. Introductory comments on IPCC Homepage (available at http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm, last accessed 18 June 2008).

Jintao, H. 2009. Join Hands to Address Climate Change. Statement at the UN Summit on Climate Change. New York, 22 September.

Joint Declaration. 2005. EU and China Partnership on Climate Change. Memo 05/298.

MCE. 2009a. The Greenland Dialogue – A ministerial gathering on climate change (available at http://www.kemin.dk/enUS/COP15/Greenland_dialogue/Sider/Forside.aspx, last accessed 29 March 2010).

MCE. 2009b. The Greenland Ministerial Dialogue on Climate Change. Chair’s Summary. Ilulissat, Greenland, 30 June–3 July.

MEF (Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate). 2009a. Chairman’s Summary from the first Preparatory Meeting of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate. Washington, DC, 29 April.

MEF. 2009b. Second Preparatory Meeting of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate Chairs’ Summary. Paris, 26 May.

MEF. 2009c. Chairs’ Summary: Third Preparatory Meeting of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate. Jiutepec, Mexico, 23 June.

MEF. 2009d. Declaration of the Leaders. The Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate. L’Aquila, 9 July.

MEF. 2009e. Chair’s Summary: Fourth Meeting of the Leaders’ Representatives of the MEF. Washington, 21 September.

MEF. 2009f. Fifth Meeting of the Leaders’ Representatives of the MEFCo-Chair’s Summary. London, 19 October.

MEF. 2012. Overview of Past Meetings (available at http://www.majoreconomiesforum.org/past-meetings last accessed 22 February 2012).

MEM. 2008. Declaration of Leaders Meeting of Major Economies on Energy Security and Climate Change. Toyako, 9 July.

Merkel, A. 2009. Pressekonferenz der Bundeskanzlerin auf der UN-Klimakonferenz in Kopenhagen. 19 Dec.

MOE Japan. 2008a. Gleneagles-Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development – 4th Ministerial Meeting. Outline of the Gleneagles Dialogue. Chiba, Japan, 14–16 March.

MOE Japan. 2008b. Gleneagles-Dialogue – 4th Ministerial Meeting. Chairs’ Conclusions. Chiba, Japan, 14–16 March.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). 2010. Japan’s position regarding the Kyoto Protocol.

National Geographic Society. 1997. President Clinton speaks on global climate change. Speech at the National Geographic Society. Washington, 22 Oct.

← 326 | 327 →NDRC. 2007. China’s National Climate Change Programme. June.

Noordwijk Conference. 1989. The Noordwijk Declaration on Atmospheric Pollution and Climatic Change. 7 November.

Obama, B. 2009. Remarks by the President during press availability in Copenhagen. 18 Dec.

Senate of the United States of America. 1997. Resolution 98 of the 105th Congress, 1st session. 25 July.

Stern, T. 2009a. Opening Plenary Session of the AWG-LCA – Prepared Opening Plenary Intervention. Bonn, 29 March.

Stern, T. 2009b. Press Briefing by Mr. Todd Stern, Special Envoy for Climate Change. Copenhagen, 9 December.

SWCC (Second World Climate Conference). 1990. Ministerial Declaration. 7 November.

Toronto Conference. 1988. The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security. Conference Statement. 27–30 June.

US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2006. Washington, DC: EPA.

US House. 2009. Chairmen Waxman, Markey Release Discussion Draft of New Clean Energy Legislation. 31 September.

US Mission (to the EU). 2008. EU, U.S. Advance Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Dialogue. Press Release. 12 March.

US. 2009. U.S. Submission on Copenhagen Agreed Outcome. 4 May.

White House. 1965. Restoring the Quality of Our Environment. Report of the President’s Science Advisory Committee. Washington.

White House. 2001a. Text of a letter from the President to Senators Hagel, Helms, Craig and Roberts. Press Release. 13 March.

White House. 2001b. President Bush discusses global climate change. Press Release. 11 June.

White House. 2009a. Remarks by President Barack Obama. Suntory Hall, Tokyo. Press Release. 14 Nov.

White House. 2009b. U.S.-China Joint Statement. Beijing, 17 November.

White House. 2009c. Joint Statement between Prime Minister Dr. Singh and President Obama. Press Release. 24 November.

White House. 2009d. President to Attend Copenhagen Climate Talks. Press Release. 25 November.

Secondary sources

Adam, D., J. Watts, and P. Wintour. 2009. Copenhagen climate talks: No deal, we’re out of time, Obama warns. The Guardian. 15 Nov. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/nov/15/copenhagen-climate-deal-obama, last accessed 4 February 2010).

← 327 | 328 →Afionis, S. 2008. From Montreal to Bali: The 2005–2007 European Union Strategy for Reengaging the United States in UNFCCC Negotiations. In-Spire: Journal of Law, Politics and Societies 3 (2): 1–14.

Afionis, S. 2011. The European Union as a negotiator in the international climate change regime. International Environmental Agreements 11 (3): 341–360.

AFP (Agence France Presse). 2008a. Réunion sur le climat à Paris: les Etats-Unis sous le feu des critiques. 17 April (available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5j13AKIUzqnEDvnQIv9LUqCLrwUng, last accessed 25 October 2009).

AFP. 2008b. Obama and McCain both offer new departure for US. 15 June (available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5j5n5VTirfbfjWR12VNX3ENcK3Kg, last accessed 25 October 2009).

AFP. 2008c. Financial crisis must not slow talks on CO2 emissions: UN. 14 Oct. (available at http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5ipd9Fpx4gIqIHtqTlN9vcmD8qfw, last accessed 22 March 2010).

AFP. 2009a. US, China wrap up climate talks. 11 June (available at http://www.spacedaily.com/2006/090611080408.obhrb33t.html, last accessed 15 March 2010).

AFP. 2009b. What’s going Bonn? 3 April (available at http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2009/04/whats_going_bonn.html, last accessed 29 March 2010).

Agence Europe. 1996. Council is not able to fix commitments for the reduction of CO2 emissions. 11 December.

Agence Europe. 1997. Breakthrough on climate change. 5 March.

Agence Europe. 2007a. Union calls for opening up of Chinese markets, but fails to convince Beijing to participate in joint climate change efforts. 30 May.

Agence Europe. 2007b. EU/Japan: Broad consensus on climate and adoption of joint action plan on intellectual property at Berlin summit. 7 June.

Agence Europe. 2007c. G8 compromise acknowledges need for substantial emissions reductions for after 2012 without setting binding target, but opens way for international negotiations under aegis of UN. 9 June.

Agence Europe. 2007d. EU well on way to achieving its Kyoto objective if Member States implement all measures being examined. 28 November.

Agence Europe. 2008a. EU/Latin America summit – climate change and sustainable development high on agenda. 8 February.

Agence Europe. 2008b. Member states support structure and ambition of climate/energy package – all want political agreement by end 2008/beginning 2009 at latest. 4 March.

Agence Europe. 2008c. EU is determined to adopt climate package by spring 2009 at latest and to protect energy-intensive industries. 15 March.

Agence Europe. 2008d. Europeans and Japanese want binding objectives on climate change and food crisis emergency measures. 24 April.

Agence Europe. 2008e. EU/Latin America and Caribbean summit expresses deep concern about rise in food prices. 20 May.

← 328 | 329 →Agence Europe. 2008f. Full support for architecture of climate/energy package and for it to be concluded by end 2008 – some delegations call for flexibility for necessary adjustments. 6 June.

Agence Europe. 2008g. Progress, but much still to be done before Copenhagen, says Mr Barroso after Major Economies Meeting. 10 July.

Agence Europe. 2008h. Europe eyeing Africa for energy security. 9 September.

Agence Europe. 2008i. European and Asian leaders commit to work together determinedly at UN conference in Poznan. 28 October.

Agence Europe. 2008j. EU hopes Poznan conference will provide solid foundations for ambitious agreement in Copenhagen in December 2009. 2 Dec.

Agence Europe. 2008k. Four days before European Council, flurry of diplomatic activity and step up in technical talks on climate change/energy package. 9 December.

Agence Europe. 2008l. Commission announces €22 million investment in clean and renewable energy projects in Africa and Asia. 12 December.

Agence Europe. 2008m. “Historic agreement” on climate change package, retaining targets despite great exemptions on paid allowance. 13 December.

Agence Europe. 2009a. Commission and Chinese government willing to work hand in hand in response to global crisis and challenges. 31 January.

Agence Europe. 2009b. G8 Agreement on reducing global emissions by half by 2050 is step forward, says EU, even though there is no 2020 target. 10 July.

Agence Europe. 2009c. EU speaks of beneficial but insufficient breakthrough by Major Economies Forum in l’Aquila. 11 July.

Agence Europe. 2009d. EU Troika in Washington to kick-start climate talk. 26 August.

Agence Europe. 2009e. As UN and G20 summits approach, Barroso calls on heads of state to move – Germany and France call for carbon tax at borders. 22 September.

Agence Europe. 2009f. EU concerned at feeble progress in Bangkok – Hopes pinned on final talks in Barcelona before Copenhagen summit. 13 Oct.

Agence Europe. 2009g. Climate ministers want far-reaching agreement in Copenhagen with immediate effect – ball now in the court of United States and China. 24 November.

Agence Europe. 2010. The State of the Union in 2010. 21 January.

Agence Europe. 2012a. Poland rejects 2050 roadmap and vetoes progress at Council. 13 March.

Agence Europe. 2012b. ETS – EU calm in face of planned retaliatory measures. 22 February.

Agence Europe. 2012c. Doha will not save planet, but it has saved face, says EU. 10 Dec.

Agence Europe. 2013. ETS “Stop the Clock” – ENVI committee endorses agreement. 27 March.

← 329 | 330 →Aggarwal, V.K. 1985. Liberal protectionism. The International Politics of Organized Textile Trade. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Allen, D. and M. Smith. 1990. Western Europe’s Presence in the Contemporary International Arena. Review of International Studies 16 (1): 19–38.

Andonova, L.B. 2009. The climate regime and domestic politics: the case of Russia. In The Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Dynamics in International Affairs, ed. P.G. Harris, 29–50. London: Routledge.

Andresen, S. 1998. The Development of the Climate Regime: Positions, Evaluations and Lessons. FNI Report 3/98. Lysaker: Fridtjof Nansen Institute.

Andresen, S., and S. Agrawala. 2002. Leaders, pushers and laggards in the making of the climate regime. Global Environmental Change 12 (1): 41–51.

Andresen, S., and S.H. Butenschøn. 2001. Norwegian Climate Policy: From Pusher to Laggard? International Environmental Agreements 4 (3): 337–356.

Arts, B., and P. Verschuren. 1999. Assessing Political influence in Complex Decision-Making: An Instrument Based on Triangulation. International Political Science Review 20 (4): 411–424.

Audet, R., and P. Bonin. 2010. Les Accords de Cancún face aux enjeux des négociations internationales sur le climat. VertigO-La revue en sciences de l’environnement, Débats et Perspectives 4: 1–12.

Baker, S. 2006. Environmental Values and Climate Change Policy: Contrasting the European Union and the United States. In Values and Principles in European Union Foreign Policy, ed. S. Lucarelli, and I. Manners, 69–87. London: Routledge.

Ball, J., and K. Johnson. 2010. Push to Oversimplify at Climate Panel. Wall Street Journal. 26 Feb. (available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704188104575083681319834978.html, last accessed 26 Oct. 2010).

Barrett, J. 1991. The Negotiation and Drafting of the Climate Change Convention. In International Law and Global Climate Change, ed. R. Churchill, and D. Freestone, 183–200. London: Graham and Trotman.

Bausch, C., and M. Mehling. 2006. ‘Alive and Kicking’: The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. RECIEL 15 (2): 193–201.

Bäckstrand, K., and O. Elgström. 2013. The EU’s role in climate negotiations: from leader to ‘leadiator’. Journal of European Public Policy (online first).

BBC. 2008. Australia sets new climate target. 15 Dec. (available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7782919.stm, last accessed 29 March 2010).

BBC. 2009a. ‘Urgent action’ needed on climate. 22 Sept. (available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8268077.stm, last accessed 22 March 2010).

BBC. 2009b. APEC leaders drop climate target. BBC online. 15 Nov. (available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8360982.stm, last accessed 4 February 2010).

Beament, E. 2010. Global warming deal hopes revived after Cancun agreement. The Independent. 11 December (available at http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/global-warming-deal-hopes-revived-after-cancun-agreement-2157688.html, last accessed 26 January 2012).

← 330 | 331 →Becker, M., and R. Nelles. 2009. Gipfel-Minimalisten feilen am Klimakompromiss. Spiegel Online. 18 Dec. (available at www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/0,1518,668037,00.html, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Beisheim, M., B. Lode, and N. Simon. 2012. Rio+20 Realpolitik and Its Implications for “The Future We Want”. Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs.

Belis, D., and S. Schunz. 2013. China and the European Union: emerging partners in global climate governance? Environmental Practice 15 (3): 190–200.

Bennett, A., and A.L. George. 2005. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Benwell, R. 2009. Linking as leverage: emissions trading and the politics of climate change. In The Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Dynamics in International Affairs, ed. P. Harris, 91–107. London: Routledge.

Bergin, T. 2009. Climate change funding talks stall at G20. Reuters. 5 Sept. (available at http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL5203919, last accessed 20 May 2010).

Betsill, M. 2005. Global Climate Change Policy: Making Progress or Spinning Wheels? In The Global Environment. Institutions, Law, and Policy, ed. R.S. Axelrod, D.L. Downie, and N.J. Vig, 103–124. Washington: CQ Press.

Betsill, M., and E. Corell. eds. 2008. NGO Diplomacy. The influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations. Boston: MIT Press.

Biermann, F. 2005. Between the USA and the South: strategic choices for European climate policy. Climate Policy 5 (3): 273–290.

Black, R. 2009. Why did Copenhagen fail to deliver a climate deal? BBC online. 22 Dec. (available athttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8426835.stm, last accessed 27 March 2010).

BMU. 2010. Minister Röttgen: New momentum for international climate negotiations (available at http://www.bmu.de/english/current_press_releases/pm/45968.php, last accessed 10 June 2011).

BMU. 2011. Petersberg Climate Dialogue II (available at http://www.bmu.de/english/petersberg_conference/doc/47568.php, last accessed 22 Feb. 2012).

BMU. 2012. Petersberg Climate Dialogue III (available at http://www.bmu.de/en/topics/climate-energy/climate/international-climate-policy/petersberg-climate-dialogue/petersberg-climate-dialogue-iii/, last accessed 12 April 2013).

Bodansky, D. 1993. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: A Commentary. Yale Journal of International Law 18 (2): 451–558.

Bodansky, D. 2001. International Law and the Design of a Climate Change Regime. In International Relations and Global Climate Change, ed. U. Luterbacher, and D. Sprinz, 201–220. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Bodansky, D. 2011. A Tale of Two Architectures: The Once and Future U.N. Climate Change Regime. Arizona State University. 7 March.

Bodansky, D. 2012. The Durban Platform Negotiations: Goals and Options. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University.

← 331 | 332 →Bodeen, C. 2009. US delegation mixed on China climate change pact. AP. 29 May (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/AleqM5hLcZ2jQ4mu4rd7XlB3hetiVn1qbAD98FBCCG0, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Bollen, A., and P. van Humbeeck. 2002. Klimaatbeleid en Klimaatverandering: een leidraad. Gent: Academia Press.

Borione, D., and J. Ripert. 1994. Exercising Common but Differentiated Responsibility. In Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention, ed. I.M. Mintzer, and J.A. Leonard, 77–96. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Energy and Environment.

Börzel, T., and T. Risse. 2000. When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change. European Integration Online Papers 4 (15).

Botzen, W.J.W., J.M. Gowdy, and J.C.J.M. Van Den Bergh. 2008. Cumulative CO2 emissions: shifting international responsibilities for climate debt. Climate policy 8 (3): 569–576.

Bowering, E. 2011. After Kyoto: the Cartagena Dialogue and the future of the international climate change regime. Working Paper. Griffith University (available at http://www.globalvoices.org.au/wp-content/uploads/UNFCCC-Research-Report-Ethan-Bowering.pdf, last accessed 14 December 2011).

Braam, G.P.A. 1975. Invloed van bedrijven op de overheid. Een empirische studie over de verdeling van maatschappelijke invloed. Meppel: Boom.

Brambilla, P. 2004. Europäisches Umweltrecht und das internationale Klimaregime der Vereinten Nationen. Ph.D. dissertation. Konstanz: University of Konstanz.

Brand, C. 2009. EU presses US on climate change. 1 Sept. (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jQtHqEAgBtWoCdvEWsykmyTvY7DwD9AEH0J80, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Brenton, T. 1994. The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolution of International Environmental Politics. London: Earthscan.

Brighi, E., and C. Hill. 2008. Implementation and behaviour. In Foreign Policy. Theories, actors, cases, ed. S. Smith, A. Hadfield, and T. Dunne, 117–136. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Broder, J. 2009. Many Goals Remain Unmet in 5 Nations’ Climate Deal. NY Times. 18 Dec. (available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/19/science/earth/19climate.html?_r=3&pagewanted=all, last accessed 22 Dec. 2009).

Broder, J., and E. Rosenthal. 2009. Obama Has Goal to Wrest a Deal in Climate Talks. NY Times. 17 Dec. (available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/18/science/earth/18climate.html?_r=4&hp, last accessed 18 March 2010).

Bruyninckx, H. 2005. EU Environmental Policy. In Handbook of EU Affairs, ed. A.M. Dobre, M. Martins-Gystelinck, R. Polacek, and R. Hunink, 213–23. Bucharest: Institutul European din Romania.

Bruyninckx, H. 2011. De zogenaamde doorbraak van Durban. De Morgen. 12 Dec. (available at http://www.demorgen.be/dm/nl/2461/De-Gedachte/article/detail/1361599/2011/12/12/De-zogenaamde-doorbraak-van-Durban.dhtml, last accessed 24 January 2012).

← 332 | 333 →Bryner, G. 2000. Congress and the Politics of Climate Change. In Climate Change and American Foreign Policy, ed. P.G. Harris, 111–130. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Buchner, B., and S. Dall’Olio. 2005. Russia and the Kyoto Protocol: The long road to ratification. Transition Studies Review 12(2): 349–382.

Buckley, C. 2009a. China flexible on rich nations’ greenhouse gas cuts. Reuters. 22 May (available at http://in.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idINTRE54P4ON20090526?sp=true, last accessed 26 February 2010).

Buckley, C. 2009b. China steps up climate diplomacy as Copenhagen looms. Reuters. 29 Oct. (available at http://in.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idINIndia-43515920091029?sp=true, last accessed 26 March 2010).

Bush, G.W. 2007. President Bush Delivers State of the Union Address. Washington, D.C., 23 January.

C2ES (Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions). 2012. Outcomes of the UN climate change conference in Doha, Qatar. Arlington, VA: C2ES.

Caporaso, J., and J. Jupille. 1998. States, Agency, and Rules: The European Union in Global Environmental Politics. In The European Union in the World Community, ed. C. Rhodes, 213–249. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Caporaso, J., and J. Jupille. 2001. The Europeanization of Gender Equality and Domestic Structural Change. In Transforming Europe: Europeanization and domestic change, ed. M. Green Cowles, J. Caporaso, and T. Risse, 21–43. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

Carlsnaes, W. 2002. Foreign Policy. In Handbook of International Relations, ed. W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse, and B.A. Simmons, 331–349. London: Sage.

Carrington, D. 2011. Climate deal: A guarantee our children will be worse off than us. The Guardian. 11 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/damian-carrington-blog/2011/dec/11/durban-climate-change-conference-2011-climate-change, last accessed 24 January 2012).

Casey-Lefkovitz, S. 2010. New international agreement to fight climate change found spirit for consensus in Cartagena Dialogue countries. 11 Dec. (available at http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/sclefkowitz/new_international_agreement_to.html, last accessed 24 February 2012).

Cass, L.R. 2007. The indispensable awkward partner: the United Kingdom in European climate policies. In Europe and Global Climate Change. Politics, foreign policy and regional cooperation, ed. P.G. Harris, 63–86. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Cass, L.R. 2009. A climate of obstinacy: symbolic politics in Australian and Canadian policy. In The Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Dynamics in International Affairs, ed. P.G. Harris, 11–28. Routledge: London.

CBS. 2009. G-20 Declared Top Global Economic Council. 25 Sept. (available at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/09/25/business/main5338518.shtml, last accessed 20 Nov. 2009).

Charlton, A. 2009. Help for poor countries at Paris climate talks. AP. 27 May (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gamKFpfPBUXl2x85j_benvY8_1oQD98E20980, last accessed 15 June 2009).

← 333 | 334 →Charter, D., and P. Webster. 2009. Gordon Brown’s climate change finance package hangs in balance. Times Online. 26 Oct. (available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article6889867.ece#, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Chasek, P.S. 2001. Earth Negotiations. Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. Tokyo: UN UP.

Checkel, J. 2005. International Institutions and Socialization in Europe: Introduction and Framework. International Organization 59 (3): 801–826.

Chinability. 2009. GDP growth in China 1952–2009. Oct. (available at http://www.chinability.com/GDP.htm, last accessed 15 Oct. 2009).

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). 2009. The World Factbook. India. Economy (available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html, last accessed 15 Nov. 2009)

Coloma, R. 2009. Washington eyes compromise at Copenhagen talks. AFP. 11 Nov. (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ilnRJe9HSpLbiwAXE1I4aKWa328w, last accessed 4 February 2010).

Costa, O. 2007. Who decides on EU foreign climate policy and why it matters. Actors, alliances and institutions. BISA Annual Conference 2007. University of Cambridge, 17–19 December.

Costa, O. 2009. Is Climate Change Changing the EU? The Second Image Reversed in Climate Politics. In The Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Dynamics in International Affairs, ed. P. Harris, 72–89. London: Routledge.

Cox, R., and H.R. Jacobson. 1973. The Framework for Inquiry. In The Anatomy of influence. Decision-Making in International Organization, ed. R. Cox, and H. Jacobson, 1–36. New Haven: Yale UP.

Curtin, J. 2010. The Copenhagen Conference: how should the EU respond? Dublin: Institute of International and European Affairs.

Dahl, R.A. 1957. The concept of power. Behavioural Science 2 (3): 201–215.

Dahl, R.A., and B. Stinebrickner. 2003. Modern Political Analysis. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Daly, M. 2010. Climate Bill: Senate Democrats Abandon Comprehensive Energy Bill. Huff ington Post. 22 July (available at http: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/22/climate-bill-senate-democ_n_656175.html, last accessed 16 September 2010).

Damro, C., and P.L. Mendez. 2003. Emissions Trading at Kyoto: from EU Resistance to Union Innovation. Environmental Politics 12 (2): 71–94.

Dasgupta, C. 1994. The Climate Change Negotiations. In Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention, ed. I. M. Mintzer, and J. A. Leonard, 129–148. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Energy and Environment.

Davies, R. 2006. 2006: The Year of Climate Change. The Voice of San Diego. 18 September.

Dee, M. 2013. Challenging Expectations: A study of European Union performance in multilateral negotiations. Ph.D. dissertation. Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

← 334 | 335 →De Jong, S., and S. Schunz 2012. Coherence in European Union External Policy before and after the Lisbon Treaty: The Cases of Energy Security and Climate Change. European Foreign Affairs Review 17 (2): 165–186.

Dehousse, F., and N. Bekkhus. 2007. Energy and climate change in the European Union. Studia Diplomatica (LX) 2.

Delbeke, J. 2011. Climate change policy post-DurbanKeynote lecture. 14 Dec. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Delbeke, J. 2012. The International Climate Regime after Doha. 20 Dec. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Delreux, T. 2008. The European Union negotiates multilateral environmental agreements: an analysis of the internal decision-making process. Ph.D. dissertation. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Depledge, J. 2005. The Organization of Global Negotiations. Constructing the Climate Change Regime. London: Earthscan.

Depledge, J. 2006. A Breakthrough for the Climate Change Regime? Environmental Policy and Law 36 (1): 14–19.

Dessai, S. 2001. Why did The Hague climate conference fail? Environmental Politics 10 (3): 139–144.

Dessai, S., and L. Schipper. 2003. The Marrakech Accords to the Kyoto Protocol: analysis and future prospects. Global Environmental Change 13 (2): 149–153.

Dessai, S., N.S. Lacasta, and K. Vincent. 2003. International political history of the Kyoto Protocol: from The Hague to Marrakech and beyond. International Review for Environmental Strategies 4 (2): 183–205.

Dessai, S., L. Schipper, E. Corbera, B. Kjellén, M. Gutiérrez, and A. Haxeltine. 2005. Challenges and Outcomes at the Ninth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. International Environmental Agreements 5 (1): 105–124.

Douma, W.T. 2006. The European Union, Russia and the Kyoto Protocol. In EU Climate Change Policy: The Challenge of New Regulatory Initiatives, ed. M. Peeters, and K. Deketelaere, 51–68. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Downie, D.L. 2005. Global Environmental Policy: Governance Through Regimes. In The Global Environment. Institutions, Law, and Policy, ed. R.S. Axelrod, D.L. Downie, and N.J. Vig, 64–82. Washington: CQ Press.

DPA. 2009a. EU sagt Milliarden für Klimaschutz zu. 11 Dec. (available at http://de.news.yahoo.com/26/20091211/tpl-eu-sagt-milliarden-fr-klimaschutz-zu-a70ba75.html, last accessed 28 March 2010).

DPA. 2009b. Neue Hoffnung vor Klima-Schlussrunde. 18 Dec. (available at http://de.news.yahoo.com/26/20091218/tpl-neue-hoffnung-vor-klimaschlussrunde-a70ba75.html, last accessed 18 March 2010).

Drexhage, J., D. Murphy, and J. Gleeson. eds. 2008. A Way Forward. Canadian perspectives on post-2012 climate policy. Winnipeg: IISD.

Dupont, C. 2012. Leading or muddling through? The EU and Durban. 16 April (available at http://ecfr.ideasoneurope.eu/2012/04/16/leading-or-muddling-through-the-eu-and-durban, last accessed 22 April 2012).

← 335 | 336 →E3G. 2009. What the EU Climate Package means for the Global Climate Deal. E3G Briefing Note. January.

Earthtimes. 2008. EU’s internal laws target global climate deal: analysis. 23 Jan. (available at http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/177361, analysis%C2%A0eus-internal-laws-target-global-climate-deal.html#, last accessed 22 Feb. 2010).

ECFR. 2012. Scorecard: Multilateral issues – climate change (available at http://www.ecfr.eu/scorecard/2012/issues/73, last accessed 16 January 2012).

Ecofys. 2010. Ambition of only two developed countries sufficiently stringent for 2°C. ClimateActionTracker. 2 February (available at http://www.climateactiontracker.org/news.php, last accessed 2 March 2010).

Eeckhout, P. 2011. EU external relations law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Egenhofer, C. 2010. A Closer Look at EU Climate Change Leadership. Intereconomics 45 (3): 167–170.

Egenhofer, C., and A. Georgiev. 2009. The Copenhagen Accord. A first stab at deciphering the implications for the EU. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Egenhofer, C., and M. Alessi. 2013. EU Policy on Climate Change Mitigation since Copenhagen and the Economic Crisis. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Eilperin, J. 2009. U.S. weighs backing interim international climate agreement. Smaller-scale approach seen as first step toward full pact. Washington Post. 13 Nov. (available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/12/AR2009111209127_pf.html, last accessed 4 February 2010).

Eilperin, J., and C. Lynch. 2009. Nations Appear Headed Toward Independent Climate Goals. Washington Post. 23 Sept. (available at http://www.washing tonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/09/22/AR2009092201137.html?Hpid%3Dtopnews, last accessed 24 March 2010).

Eisenhardt, K.M. 1989. Building Theories from Case Study Research. The Academy of Management Review 14 (4): 532–550.

Elster, J. 1998. A plea for mechanisms. In Social Mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, ed. P. Hedström, and R. Swedberg, 45–73. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

ENB. 1995a. Curtainraiser – COP 1. Vol. 12 (12), 28 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1995b. Climate Change Convention COP-1. Vol. 12 (13). 29 March. New York: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

ENB. 1995c. Climate Change Convention COP-1 Highlights: Wednesday, 29 March 1995. Vol. 12 (14). 30 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1995d. Climate Change Convention COP-1 Highlights: 31 March and 1 April 1995. Vol. 12 (16). 3 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1995e. Climate Change Convention COP-1 Highlights: 3 April 1995. Vol. 12 (17). 4 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1995f. Climate Change Convention COP-1 Highlights: 5 April 1995. Vol. 12 (19). 6 April. New York: IISD.

← 336 | 337 →ENB. 1995g. Report of the AGBM: 21–25 August 1995. Vol. 12 (22). 28 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1995h. Report of the second session of the AGBM. Vol. 12 (24). 7 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1996a. Report of the third session of the AGBM. Vol. 12 (27). 11 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1996b. Summary of the second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (38). 22 July. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1996c. Report of the Meetings of the Subsidiary Bodies of the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (39). 23 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997a. Highlights from the sixth session of the AGBM, 3 March 1997. Vol. 12 (41). 4 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997b. Highlights from the sixth session of the AGBM, 4 March 1997. Vol. 12 (42). 5 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997c. Report of the sixth session of the AGBM. Vol. 12 (45). 10 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997d. Summary of the Nineteenth UNGA Special Session to Review Implementation of Agenda 21. Vol. 5 (88). 30 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997e. Highlights from the FCCC AGBM, 31 July 1997. Vol. 12 (50). 1 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997f. Highlights from the Meeting of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies: 5 August 1997. Vol. 12 (53). 6 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997g. Report of the Meeting of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (55). 11 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997h. Highlights from the Meetings of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies: 22 October 1997. Vol. 12 (59). 23 October. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997i. Highlights from the Meeting of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies: 23 October 1997. Vol. 12 (60). 24 October. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997j. Highlights from the Meetings of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies: 27 October 1997. Vol. 12 (62). 28 October. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997k. Report of the meetings of the FCCC Subsidiary Bodies: 20–31 October 1997. Vol. 12 (66). 3 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997l. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 30 November 1997. Vol. 12 (67). 1 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997m. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 1 December 1997. Vol. 12 (68). 2 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997n. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: 2 December 1997. Vol. 12 (69). 3 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997o. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 3 December 1997. Vol. 12 (70). 4 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997p. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 5 December 1997. Vol. 12 (72). 6 December. New York: IISD.

← 337 | 338 →ENB. 1997q. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 6–7 December 1997. Vol. 12 (73). 8 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997r. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 8 December 1997. Vol. 12 (74). 9 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997s. Highlights from the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 9 December 1997. Vol. 12 (75). 10 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1997t. Report of the Third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC: 1–11 December 1997. Vol. 12 (76). 13 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1998. Report of the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (97). 16 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 1999. Summary of the fifth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (123). 8 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2000. Summary of the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (163). 27 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2001a. Summary of the Resumed Sixth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (176). 30 July. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2001b. Summary of the Seventh Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (189). 12 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2002. Summary of the Eighth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (209). 4 November. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2003. Summary of the Ninth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (231). 15 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2004a. Summary of the Tenth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Vol. 12 (260). 20 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2004b. UNFCCC COP-10 Highlights: 13 December. Vol. 12 (256). 14 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2005a. Summary of the UNFCCC seminar of Governmental Experts: 16–17 May 2005. Vol. 12 (261). 19 May. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2005b. Summary of the Eleventh Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP). Vol. 12 (291). 20 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2006. Summary of the Twelfth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and Second MOP: 6–17 November 2006. Vol. 12 (318). 20 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007a. Twenty-Sixth Sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies of the UNFCCC and associated meetings. Vol. 12 (333). 21 May 2007. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007b. AWG 4 and Dialogue 4 highlights: 30 August 2007. Vol. 12 (338). 31 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007c. Fourth sessions of the AWG-LCA and Convention Dialogue: 27–31 August 2007. Vol. 12 (339). 3 September. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007d. Thirteenth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and Third MOP. Vol. 12 (343). 3 December. New York: IISD.

← 338 | 339 →ENB. 2007e. COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 highlights: 5 December 2007. Vol. 12 (346). 6 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007f. COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 highlights: 6 December 2007. Vol. 12 (347). 7 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007g. COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 highlights: 7 December 2007. Vol. 12 (348). 8 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007h. COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 highlights: 8 December 2007. Vol. 12 (349). 10 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007i. COP 13 and COP/MOP 3 highlights: 11 December 2007. Vol. 12 (351). 12 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2007j. Summary of the Thirteenth Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC and Third MOP. Vol. 12 (354). 18 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008a. First session of the AWG-LCA and fifth Session of the AWG-KP. Vol. 12 (357). 31 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008b. Summary of the first Session of the AWG-LCA and the fifth Session of the AWG-KP. Vol. 12 (362). 7 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008c. SB 28 and AWG highlights: 9 June 2008. Vol. 12 (371). 10 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008d. Twenty-Eighth Sessions of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies, Second Session of the AWG-LCA, and fifth Session of the AWG-KP: 2–13 June 2008. Vol. 12 (375). 16 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008e. AWG-LCA 3 and AWP-KP 6 highlights: 23 August 2008. Vol. 12 (380). 25 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008f. AWG-LCA 3 and AWP-KP 6 highlights: 25 August 2008. Vol. 12 (381). 26 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008g. Summary of the Third Session of the AWG-LCA and Sixth Session (Part One) of the AWG-KP. Vol. 12 (383). 30 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008h. COP 14 highlights: 2 December 2008. Vol. 12 (387). 3 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008i. COP 14 highlights: 4 December 2008. Vol. 12 (389). 5 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008j. COP 14 highlights: 9 December 2008. Vol. 12 (392). 10 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008k. COP 14 highlights: 11 December 2008. Vol. 12 (394). 12 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2008l. Summary of the Fourteenth Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC and Fourth MOP. Vol. 12 (395). 15 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009a. AWG-LCA 5 and AWG-KP 7 highlights: 29 March 2009. Vol. 12 (398). 30 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009b. AWG-LCA 5 and AWG-KP 7 highlights: 30 March 2009. Vol. 12 (399). 31 March. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009c. AWG-LCA 5 and AWG-KP 7 highlights: 31 March 2009. Vol. 12 (400). 1 April. New York: IISD.

← 339 | 340 →ENB. 2009d. AWG-LCA 5 and AWG-KP 7 highlights: 1 April 2009. Vol. 12 (401). 2 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009e. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 1 June 2009. Vol. 12 (411). 2 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009f. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 2 June 2009. Vol. 12 (412). 3 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009g. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 4 June 2009. Vol. 12 (414). 5 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009h. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 5 June 2009. Vol. 12 (415). 6 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009i. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 6 June 2009. Vol. 12 (416). 8 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009j. SB 30 and AWG highlights: 8 June 2009. Vol. 12 (417). 9 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009k. Summary of the Bonn Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (421). 15 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009l. Bonn Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (422). 10 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009m. AWG-LCA 7 and AWG-KP 9 highlights: 28 September 2009. Vol. 12 (429). 29 Sept. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009n. AWG-LCA 7 and AWG-KP 9 highlights: 2 October 2009. Vol. 12 (433). 3 Oct. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009o. AWG-LCA 7 and AWG-KP 9 highlights: 5 October 2009. Vol. 12 (435). 6 Oct. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009p. Summary of the Bangkok Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (439). 12 Oct. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009q. AWG-LCA 7 and AWG-KP 9 highlights: 2 November 2009. Vol. 12 (443). 3 Nov. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009r. AWG-LCA 7 and AWG-KP 9 highlights: 3 November 2009. Vol. 12 (444). 4 Nov. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009s. Summary of the Barcelona Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (447). 9 Nov. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009t. Copenhagen highlights: 7 December 2009. Vol. 12 (449). 8 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009u. Copenhagen highlights: 8 December 2009. Vol. 12 (450). 9 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009v. Copenhagen highlights: 9 December 2009. Vol. 12 (451). 10 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009w. Copenhagen highlights: 10 December 2009. Vol. 12 (452). 11 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009x. Copenhagen highlights: 12 December 2009. Vol. 12 (454). 14 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009y. Copenhagen highlights: 14 December 2009. Vol. 12 (455). 15 Dec. New York: IISD.

← 340 | 341 →ENB. 2009z. Copenhagen highlights: 15 December 2009. Vol. 12 (456). 16 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009aa. Copenhagen highlights: 16 December 2009. Vol. 12 (457). 17 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009bb. Copenhagen highlights: 17 December 2009. Vol. 12 (458). 18 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2009cc. Summary of the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference: 7–19 December 2009. Vol. 12 (459). 22 Dec. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2010a. Summary of the Bonn Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (460). 14 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2010b. Final Summary of the Bonn Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (472). 14 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2010c. Summary of the Bonn Climate Talks. Vol. 12 (478). 9 August. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2010d. Summary of the Tianjin Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (485). 12 October. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2010e. Summary of the Cancun Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (498). 13 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2011a. Summary of the Bangkok Climate Talks. Vol. 12 (499). 11 April. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2011b. Summary of the Bonn Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (513). 20 June. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2011c. Summary of the Panama City Climate Change Talks. Vol. 12 (521). 10 October. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2011d. Summary of the Durban Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (534). 13 December. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2012a. Summary of the Bonn Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (546). 28 May. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2012b. Summary of the Bangkok Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (555). 8 Sept. New York: IISD.

ENB. 2012c. Summary of the Doha Climate Change Conference. Vol. 12 (567). 11 Dec. New York: IISD.

EPL. 1999. Climate Change: Plan of Action Adopted. Environmental Policy and Law 29 (1): 2–8.

EUObserver. 2008. Climate deal slammed as a ‘mirage’. 12 December. (available at http://euobserver.com/9/27297/?rk=1, last accessed 9 March 2009).

Eurobarometer. 2008. Europeans’ attitudes towards climate change. Special Report 300. Brussels, September.

Falleti, T., and J. Lynch. 2009. Context and Causal Mechanisms in Political Analysis. Comparative Political Studies 42 (9): 1143–1166.

Fermann, G. 1993. Japan’s 1990 Climate Policy under Pressure. Security Dialogue 24 (3): 287–300.

← 341 | 342 →Fisher, R., W. Ury, and B. Patton. 1991. Getting to Yes. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Flavin, C. 1998. Last Tango in Buenos Aires. World Watch (Nov./Dec.): 11–18.

Fodella, A. 2004. The Ninth Session of the Conference of the Parties. Environmental Policy and Law 34 (1): 24–26.

Friedman, L. 2011. Nations Heading to Durban Climate Talks Remain Deeply Divided. NY Times. October 10 (available at http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/10/10/10climatewire-nations-heading-to-durban-climate-talks-remai-1993.html, last accessed 20 December 2011).

Garber, K. 2008. The U.N. on the State of Climate Change. Q & A: Yvo de Boer discusses progress toward a global treaty. 22 April (available at http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/world/2008/04/22/the-un-on-the-state-of-climate-change_print.htm, last accessed 15 October 2009).

Geden, O. 2011. Was an der EU-Strategie falsch ist. Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs.

Germanwatch. 2006. Results of the UN Climate Summit in Montreal. Bonn: Germanwatch.

Germanwatch. 2007. EU threatens MEM boycott. Eco Newsletter. 14 Dec.

Gerring, J. 2007. Case study research. Principles and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Giddens, A. 1984. The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ginsberg, R. 2001. The European Union in International Politics. Baptism by fire. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Goertz, G. 2006. Social science concepts: A user’s guide. Princeton: Princeton UP.

Goldenberg, S. 2009a. Great clean-up – can economic rescue plans also save planet? The Guardian. 24 February (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/feb/24/obama-environment-economic-rescue, last accessed 26 February 2009).

Goldenberg, S. 2009b. US and India pledge common action on climate change. The Guardian. 24 Nov. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/nov/24/climate-change-india-barack-obama, last accessed 14 February 2010).

Goldenberg, S., and A. Stratton. 2009. From dinner to desperation: The 24-hour race for a deal in Copenhagen. The Guardian. 18 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/18/copenhagen-race-for-a-deal, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Goldenberg, S., and J. Vidal. 2009. US scales down hopes of global climate change treaty in Copenhagen. The Guardian. 4 Nov. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/nov/04/us-climate-change-copenhagen-treaty, last accessed 23 March 2010).

Goldenberg, S., and J. Watts. 2009. US aims for bilateral climate change deals with China and India. The Guardian. 14 Oct. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/oct/14/obama-india-china-climate-change, last accessed 14 March 2010).

← 342 | 343 →Goldenberg, S., J. Vidal, and J. Watts. 2009. Copenhagen draft text reveals deal is still out of reach. The Guardian. 18 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/18/copenhagen-draft-text, last accessed 24 March 2010).

Goldenberg, S., and M. Elder. 2011. Japan nuclear crisis escalates. The Guardian. 16 March. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/16/japan-nuclear-crisis-escalates, last accessed 22 April 2011).

Goldstein, J., and R.O. Keohane. eds. 1993. Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions and Political Change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP.

Graham-Harrison, E. 2007. Bali breakthrough launches historic climate talks. Yahoo News. 15 December (available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20071215/wl_nm/bali_saturday_dc_9, last accessed 20 February 2010).

Greenpeace. 2007. Hiding behind the poor. A report by Greenpeace on climate injustice (available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/india/press/reports/hiding-behind-the-poor.pdf, last accessed 23 October 2009).

Groen, L., and A. Niemann 2012. EU actorness and effectiveness under political pressure at the Copenhagen climate change negotiations. Mainz: University of Mainz.

Groenleer, M.L.P., and L.G. van Schaik. 2007. United We Stand? The European Union’s International Actorness in the Cases of the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol. Journal of Common Market Studies 45 (5): 969–998.

Grubb, M. 2001. The UK and the European Union: Britannia Waives the Rules? In Climate Change After Marrakech: The Role of Europe in the Global Arena. German Foreign Policy in Dialogue, ed. D. Sprinz, 9–12. University of Trier.

Grubb, M., and F. Yamin. 2001. Climatic Collapse at The Hague: What happened, why, and where do we go from here? International Affairs 77 (2): 261–276.

Grubb, M., and J. Gupta. 2000. Towards a theoretical analysis of leadership. In Climate Change and European leadership: A sustainable role for Europe, ed. J. Gupta, and M. Grubb, 15–24. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Grubb, M., C. Vrolijk, and D. Brack. 2001. The Kyoto Protocol. A Guide and Assessment. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Gupta, J. 1998. Leadership in the Climate Regime: Inspiring the Commitment of Developing Countries in the Post-Kyoto Phase. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 7 (2): 180–190.

Gupta, J. 2000. North-South Aspects of the Climate Change Issue: Towards a Negotiating Theory and Strategy for Developing Countries. International Journal of Sustainable Development 3 (2): 115–135.

Gupta, J., and L. Ringius. 2001. The EU’s Climate Leadership: Reconciling Ambition and Reality. International Environmental Agreements 1 (1): 281–299.

Gupta, J., and M. Grubb. 2000. Climate Change and European Leadership: A sustainable role for Europe? Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gysen, J., H. Bruyninckx, and K. Bachus. 2006. The Modus Narrandi. A Methodology for Evaluating Effects of Environmental Policy. Evaluation 12 (1): 95–118.

← 343 | 344 →Habermas, J. 1981. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns 2. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Haigh, N. 1996. Climate Change Policies and Politics in the European Community. In Politics of Climate Change. A European Perspective, ed. T. O’Riordan, and J. Jäger, 155–185. London: Routledge.

Hallding, K., M. Olsson, A. Atteridge, A. Vihma, M. Carson, and M. Román. 2011. Together Alone. BASIC countries and the climate change conundrum. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.

Harris, P.G. 2000. International Norms of Responsibility and U.S. Climate Change Policy. In Climate Change and American Foreign Policy, ed. P.G. Harris, 225–240. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Harris, P.G. 2001. International Environmental Affairs and U.S. Foreign Policy. In The Environment, International Relations, and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. P.G. Harris, 3–42. Washington: Georgetown UP.

Harris, P.G. 2007. Europe and the politics and foreign policy of global climate change. In Europe and Global Climate Change: Politics, Foreign Policy, and Regional Cooperation, ed. P.G. Harris, 3–37. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Harris, P.G., and Y. Hongyuan. 2009. Climate Change in Chinese Foreign Policy: Internal and External Responses. In Climate Change and Foreign Policy. Case Studies from East to West, ed. P.G. Harris, 53–67. London: Routledge.

Harrison, N.E. 2000. From the Inside Out: Domestic influences on Global Environmental Policy. In Climate Change and American Foreign Policy, ed. P.G. Harris, 89–110. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Harvey, F. 2009. Views diverge on cuts by 2020. financial Times. 8 April (available at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/50a7f2de-23d3-11de-996a-00144feabdc0.html?nclick_check=1, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Hasenclever, A., P. Mayer, and V. Rittberger. 1996. Interests, Power, Knowledge: The Study of International Regimes. Mershon International Studies Review 40 (2): 177–228.

Hasselmann, K., and T. Barker. 2008. The Stern Review and the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: implications for interaction between policymakers and climate experts. An editorial essay. Climatic Change 89: 219–229.

Hedegaard, C. 2011. Europe has brought about a new phase in global climate policy. The Guardian. 13 December.

Hedegaard, C. 2012. Why the Doha climate conference was a success. The Guardian. 14 December.

Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, and J. Perraton. 1999. Global Transformations, Politics, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Herold, A., M. Cames, V. Cook, and L. Emele. 2012. The Development of Climate Negotiations in View of Doha (COP 18). Study. Brussels: European Parliament.

Holsti, K.J. 1995. International Politics: A Framework for Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

← 344 | 345 →Holzinger, K. 2004. Bargaining through Arguing: An Empirical Analysis Based on Speech Act Theory. Political Communication 21 (2): 195–222.

Hood, M. 2009. US won’t speed up emissions cuts: top climate negotiator. 24 May (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gJP2lqVLhpEPLc0Spl8dd7OOD6Zw, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Huberman, A.M., and M.B. Miles. eds. 2002. The qualitative researcher’s companion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Huberts, L.W.J.C. 1994. Intensieve procesanalyse. In Methoden van invloedsanalyse, ed. L.W.J.C. Huberts, and J. Kleinnijenhuis, 38–60. Amsterdam: Boom.

Hudson, V., and C. Vore. 1995. Foreign policy analysis yesterday, today and tomorrow. Mershon International Studies Review 39 (2): 209–238.

Hultman, N. 2011. The Durban Platform. Brookings. 12 Dec. (available at http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2011/1212_durban_platform_hultman.aspx, last accessed 4 February 2012).

Hunter, D., J. Salzman, and D. Zaelke. 2002. International Environmental Law and Policy. 2nd ed. New York: Foundation Press.

Imhasly, B. 2008. Ein reiches Land mit armen Menschen. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 22: 13–19.

International Center For Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). 2010. Tianjin Climate Meeting Delivers Little. Geneva: ICTSD.

Jachtenfuchs, M. 1996. International Policy-Making as a Learning Process: the European Union and the Greenhouse Effect. Hampshire: Avebury Studies in Green Research.

Jacoby, H., and D. Reiner. 2001. Getting climate policy on track after The Hague. International Affairs 77 (2): 297–312.

Jakobson, L. 2009. China. In Towards a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, ed. A. Korppoo, and A. Luta, 22–46. Helsinki: The finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA).

Johnston M., and P. Hudson. 2011. Protesters disrupt Question Time after carbon bills pass lower house. Herald Sun. 12 October. (available at http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/carbon-tax-bills-pass-lower-house-of-federal-parliament/story-fn7x8me2-1226164570957, last accessed 14 November 2011).

Jordan, A., and T. Rayner. 2010. The evolution of climate policy in the European Union: an historical overview. In Climate Change Policy in the European Union, ed. A. Jordan, D. Huitema, H. van Asselt, T. Rayner, and F. Berkhout, 52–80. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jørgensen, K.E. 2007. The European Union and the World. In Handbook of European Union Politics, ed. K.E. Jørgensen, M.A. Pollack, and B. Rosamond, 507–544. London: Sage.

Jørgensen, K.E., S. Oberthür, and J. Shahin. 2011. Introduction: Assessing the EU’s Performance in International Institutions – Conceptual Framework and Core findings. Journal of European Integration 33 (6): 599–620.

← 345 | 346 →Kameyama, Y. 2004: Evaluation and Future of the Kyoto Protocol: Japan’s perspective. International Review for Environmental Strategies 5 (1): 71–81.

Kanie, N. 2003. Leadership in Multilateral Negotiation and Domestic Policy: The Netherlands at the Kyoto Protocol Negotiations. International Negotiation 8 (4): 339–365.

Kasa, S., A.T. Gullberg, and G. Heggelund. 2008. The Group of 77 in the international climate negotiations: recent developments and future directions. International Environmental Agreements 8 (1): 113–127.

Kennedy, M. 2009. India’s familiar stance on climate change. Gulf News. 30 Nov. (available at http://gulfnews.com/opinions/columnists/india-s-familiar-stance-on-climate-change-1.541953, last accessed 29 March 2010).

Keohane, R.O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton UP.

Keohane, R.O. 1989. The Demand for International Regimes. In International Institutions and State Power, ed. R.O. Keohane, 101–131. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Keohane, R.O. 2001. Governance in a Partially Globalized World. Presidential Address, American Political Science Association 2000. American Political Science Review 95 (1): 1–13.

Keukeleire, S., and H. Bruyninckx. 2011. The European Union, the BRICs and the emerging new world order. In International Relations and the European Union, 2nd ed., ed. C. Hill, and M. Smith, 380–403. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Keukeleire, S., and J. MacNaughtan. 2008. The Foreign Policy of the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kjellen, B. 1994. A Personal Assessment. In Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention, ed. I.M. Mintzer, and J.A. Leonard, 149–174. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Energy and Environment.

Kleine, M., and T. Risse. 2005. Arguing and Persuasion in the European Convention. Berlin: Center for Transatlantic Foreign and Security Policy.

Knocke, D. 1990. Political Networks: The Structural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Korppoo, A. 2009a. Japan. In Towards a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, ed. A. Korppoo, and A. Luta, 66–80. Helsinki: FIIA.

Korppoo, A. 2009b. Russia. In Towards a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, ed. A. Korppoo, and A. Luta, 81–99. Helsinki: FIIA.

Korppoo, A. 2009c. The Russian Climate Doctrine. Emerging Issues on the Road to Copenhagen. Briefing Paper. Helsinki: FIIA.

Korppoo, A., and A. Luta. 2009. India. In Towards a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, ed. A. Korppoo, and A. Luta, 47–65. Helsinki: FIIA.

Krasner, S. 1983. Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables. In International Regimes, ed. S. Krasner, 1–21. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

← 346 | 347 →Krasner, S. 1991. Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier. World Politics 43 (2): 336–366.

Kratochwil, F.V. 1989. Rules, Norms, and Decisions: On the Conditions of Practical and Legal Reasoning in International Relations and Domestic Affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

La Viña, A.G.M., and L.G. Ang. 2010. From Copenhagen to Cancun: Challenges and Prospects for the UNFCCC Negotiations. London: fiELD.

Lacasta, N. 2008. The EU as an Actor in International Climate Policy: External Competence, Internal Procedure and Actual Practice. Lecture slides. VUB Brussels, 26 November.

Lakshmanan, I. 2009. India Refuses to Bend to U.S. Pressure on Carbon Caps. Bloomberg. 19 July (available at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601090&sid=aZcBZXJ9RZ1Y, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Landler, M. 2009. Clinton Paints China Policy With a Green Hue. NY Times. 21 February (available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/22/world/asia/22diplo.html, last accessed 25 Nov. 2009).

Lenaerts, U. 2009. Climate change – EU internal coordination and outreach. Presentation at the workshop “EU foreign policy and global climate change: towards a comprehensive European climate diplomacy?” Leuven. 13 Oct.

Lescher, T.B. 2000. Die EU als eigenständiger Akteur in der Entstehung des internationalen Klimaregimes. Studien zur Deutschen und Europäischen Aussenpolitik. Trier: Universität Trier.

Lewis, J.I. 2007/2008. China’s Strategic Priorities in International Climate Change Negotiations. The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2007/2008) 31 (1): 155–174.

Lieb, J., and A. Maurer. eds. 2009. Der Vertrag von Lissabon. Kurzkommentar. 3rd ed. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.

Lindenthal, A. 2009. Leadership im Klimaschutz. Die Rolle der Europäischen Union in der internationalen Umweltpolitik. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Little, R. 2008. International regimes. In The Globalization of World Politics. An introduction to international relations. 4th ed., ed. J. Baylis, S. Smith, and P. Owens, 296–311. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Lucarelli, S., and L. Fioramati. eds. 2010. External Perceptions of the European Union as a Global Actor. London: Routledge.

Luta, A. 2009. Climate Sudoku. Japan’s bumpy ride towards a post-2012 target. Briefing Paper. Helsinki: The finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Lynas, M. 2009. How do I know China wrecked the Copenhagen deal? I was in the room. The Guardian. 22 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/22/copenhagen-climate-change-mark-lynas, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Mackie, J.L. 1974. The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Mahoney, J. 2003. Tentative Answers to Questions about Causal Mechanisms. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Philadelphia, PA. 28 August.

← 347 | 348 →Manners, I., and R. G. Whitman. eds. 2000. The foreign policies of European Union Member States. Manchester: Manchester UP.

Marcu, A. 2012. Doha/COP 18: Gateway to a New Climate Change Agreement. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Marini, M., and B. Singer. 1988. Causality in the Social Sciences. Sociological Methodology 18 (2): 347–409.

Matsumura, H. 2000. Japan and the Kyoto Protocol. Conditions for Ratification. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Meilstrup, P. 2010. The Runaway Summit: The Background Story of the Danish Presidency of COP15, the UN Climate Change Conference (available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/rome2007/docs/What%20really%20happen%20in%20COP15.pdf, last accessed 3 February 2012).

Meltzer, J. 2011. After Fukushima: What’s Next for Japan’s Energy and Climate Change Policy? Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.

Menon, S. 2009. What the US has done is too little. Business Standard. 19 April (available at http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/whatus-has-done-is-too-little/355512/, last accessed 24 February 2010).

Metz, B. 2000. International equity in climate change policy. Integrated Assessment 1 (1): 111–126.

Meunier, S. 2000. What Single Voice? European Institutions and EU-US Trade Negotiations. International Organization 54 (1): 103–135.

Michaelowa, A. 2003. Editorial. Climate Policy 2 (1): 1–2.

Michaelowa, K., and A. Michaelowa. 2011. India in the international climate negotiations: from traditional nay-sayer to dynamic broker. Zurich: University of Zurich.

Miles, M., and A. Huberman. 1994. Qualitative data analysis. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Minten, D. 2009. Europa in tranen. De Standaard. 21 December 2009. P. 15.

Mintzer, I.M., and J.A. Leonard. eds. 1994. Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Energy and Environment.

Missbach, A. 2000. Regulation Theory and Climate Change Policy. In Climate Change and American Foreign Policy, ed. P.G. Harris, 131–150. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Mohiuddin, Y. 2009. India to rein in emissions, but at minimal cost: analysts. 3 Dec. (available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/unclimatewarmingindia, last accessed 29 March 2010).

Morgera, E., K. Kulovesi, and M. Muñoz. 2011. Environmental integration and multi-faceted international dimensions of EU law: Unpacking the EU’s 2009 climate and energy package. Common Market Law Review 48(3): 829–891.

Mrusek, K. 2009. Der Zwei-Grad-Kippschalter. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 9 July.

← 348 | 349 →Müller, B. 2006. Montreal 2005: What Happened and What It Means. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Müller, B. 2008. Bali 2007: on the road again! Oxford: Oxford: Climate Policy Paper.

Müller, B. 2010. Copenhagen 2009. Failure or final wake-up call for our leaders. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Müller, H. 1994. Internationale Beziehungen als kommunikatives Handeln. Zur Kritik der utilitaristischen Handlungstheorien. Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen 1 (1): 15–44.

Murphy, D. 2009. Status of UNFCCC Negotiations. Outcomes of COP 14 in Poznan. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Murray, J. 2009. India and China ink climate pact, as Copenhagen speculation rumbles on. Business Green. 21 Oct. (available at http://www.businessgreen.com/business-green/news/2251737/india-china-ink-climate-pact, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Muthoo, A. 2000. A Non-Technical Introduction to Bargaining Theory. World Economics 1 (2): 145–166.

Nagel, J. 1975. The Descriptive Analysis of Power. New Haven, CT: Yale UP.

Najam, A., S. Huq, and Y. Sokona. 2003. Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (2): 221–231.

Nazret. 2010. Ethiopia – Meles Zenawi was both praised and slammed for his role in Copenhagen. 20 December (available at http://nazret.com/blog/index.php?title=ethiopia_meles_zenawi_was_both_praised_a&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1, last accessed 10 May 2010).

Nitze, W.A. 1994. A Failure of Presidential Leadership. In Negotiating ­Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention, ed. I.M. Mintzer, and J.A. ­Leonard, ­187–200. Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in Energy and ­Environment.

Nordhaus, T., and M. Shellenberger. 2009. Apocalypse Fatigue: Losing the Public on Climate Change. E360.yale.edu. 16 November (available at http://e360.yale.edu/content/feature.msp?id=2210, last accessed 18 Nov. 2009).

Nuttall, S. 2005. Coherence and Consistency. In International Relations and the European Union, ed. C. Hill, and M. Smith, 91–112. Oxford: Oxford UP.

O’Riordan, T., and J. Jäger. eds. 1996. Politics of Climate Change. A European Perspective. London: Routledge.

Oberthür, S. 1993. Politik im Treibhaus: Die Entstehung des internationalen Klimaschutzregimes. Berlin: Sigma.

Oberthür, S. 1994. Climate Change Convention: Preparations for the first Conference of the Parties. Environmental Policy and Law 24 (6): 299–303.

Oberthür, S. 2007. The European Union in international climate policy: The prospect for leadership. Intereconomics 42 (2): 77–83.

Oberthür, S. 2009. The role of the EU in global environmental and climate governance. In The European Union and Global Governance, ed. M. Telo, 192–209. London: Routledge.

← 349 | 350 →Oberthür, S., and C. Roche Kelly. 2008. EU Leadership in International Climate Policy: Achievements and Challenges. The International Spectator 43 (3): 35–50.

Oberthür, S., and H.E. Ott. 1999. The Kyoto Protocol. International Climate Policy for the 21st Century. Berlin: Springer.

Oberthür, S., M. Pallemaerts, and C. Roche Kelly. eds. 2010. The New Climate Policies of the European Union: Internal Legislation and Climate Diplomacy. Brussels: VUB Press.

Ochs, A. 2008. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly? Europe, the United States, and China at the World Climate Conference. Facet Analysis. February.

Okereke, C., P. Mann, H. Osbahr, B. Müller, and J. Ebeling. 2007. Assessment of key negotiating issues at Nairobi climate COP/MOP and what it means for the future of the climate regime. Tyndall Working Paper 106. Norwich: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.

Ott, H.E. 1998. Report on developments in international climate policy and law. Yearbook of International Environmental Law 9: 183–189.

Ott, H.E. 2001a. Climate change: An important foreign policy issue. International Affairs 7 (1): 277–296.

Ott, H.E. 2001b. The Bonn Agreement to the Kyoto Protocol: Paving the way for ratification. International Environmental Agreements 1 (3): 469–476.

Ott, H.E. 2003. Warning signs from Delhi: Troubled waters ahead for global climate policy. Paper (available at http://www.wupperinst.org/download/Warning-Signs-Ott.pdf, last accessed 24 July 2009).

Ott, H.E., B. Brouns, W. Sterk, and B. Wittneben. 2005. It takes two to tango. Climate policy at COP 10 in Buenos Aires and beyond. Journal for European Environmental and Planning Law 2 (1): 84–91.

Ott, H.E., W. Sterk, and R. Watanabe. 2008. The Bali roadmap: new horizons for global climate policy. Climate Policy 8 (1): 91–95.

Paarlburg, R. 1997. Earth in Abeyance: Explaining Weak Leadership in US International Environmental Policy. In Eagle Adrift: American Foreign Policy at the End of the Century, ed. R.J. Lieber, 137–159. New York: Longman.

Pallemaerts, M. 2004. Le cadre international et européen des politiques de lutte contre les changements climatiques. Courrier hébdomadaire No. 1858–1859. Bruxelles: CRISP.

Pallemaerts, M., and R. Williams. 2006. Climate change: The international and European policy framework. In EU climate change policy: the challenge of new regulatory initiatives, 22–50, ed. M. Peeters, and K. Deketelaere. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Parker, C.F., and C. Karlsson. 2010. Climate Change and the European Union’s Leadership Moment: An Inconvenient Truth? Journal of Common Market Studies 48 (4): 923–953.

Pataki, G.E., and T.J. Vilsack. eds. 2008. Confronting Climate Change: a strategy for U.S. foreign policy. Report of an independent task force. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

← 350 | 351 →Paterson, M. 1996. Global Warming and Global Politics. London: Routledge.

Paterson, M., and M. Grubb. 1992. The International Politics of Climate Change. International Affairs 68 (2): 293–310.

Pawlak, J. 2009. EU calls for more U.S. involvement in climate works. Reuters. 22 Dec. (available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5BL21F20091222, last accessed 25 June 2010).

PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency). 2008. Global CO2 emissions: increase continued in 2007. Report released on 13 June 2008 (available at http://www.pbl.nl/en/publications/2008/GlobalCO2emissionsthrough2007.html, last accessed 9 March 2009).

Peake, R. 2007. Labor ratifies Kyoto Protocol Climate of change as Kevin Rudd takes over reins of power. Canberra Times. 4 Dec. (available at http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/labor-ratifies-kyoto-protocol-climate-of-change-as-kevin-rudd-takes-over-reins-of-power/463389.aspx, last accessed 23 February 2010).

Pearce, F. 2009. Did Ed Miliband save the Copenhagen summit from complete failure? The Guardian. 23 December.

Petersen, F.A. 2009. Danish Ambassador: ‘We Will Seal the Deal in ­Copenhagen’. Green Inc. 23 Nov. (available at http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/23/danish-ambassador-we-will-seal-the-deal-in-copenhagen/, last accessed 23 March 2010).

Phillips, L. 2008. Parliament negotiators sign off on climate deal. EUObserver. 15 Dec (available at http://euobserver.com/9/27300/?rk=1, last accessed 29 March 2010).

Phillips, L. 2009a. UN climate chief: ‘The world is waiting for the EU’. EUObserver. 23 June (available at http://euobserver.com/19/29040, last accessed 23 March 2010).

Phillips, L. 2009b. Recession and hot weather push CO2 emissions down in EU. EUObserver. 2 Sept. (available at http://euobserver.com/885/28609, last accessed 26 June 2010).

Phillips, L. 2009c. EU pessimistic about Copenhagen climate change deal. EUObserver. 6 Nov. (available at http://euobserver.com/9/28950/?rk=1, last accessed 15 March 2010).

Phillips, L. 2010. Battling the ‘Multilateral Zombie’ – EU climate strategy after Copenhagen. EU Observer. 3 February (available at http://www.euobserver.com/19/29354, last accessed 11 February 2010).

Pidwirny, M. 2006. Greenhouse effect. In Encyclopedia of Earth, ed. C.J. Cleveland. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.

Pinholt, K. 2004. influence through arguments? A study of the Commission’s influence on the climate change negotiations. Oslo: Arena.

Pop, V. 2010. Van Rompuy and Barroso to both represent EU at G20. EUObserver. 19 March. (available at, last accessed 29 March 2010).

← 351 | 352 →Purvis, N., and A. Stevenson. 2010. Rethinking Climate Diplomacy. New ideas for transatlantic cooperation post-Copenhagen. Washington: The German Marshall Fund of the United States.

Rabe, B.G. 2004. State and greenhouse: the emerging politics of American climate change policy. Brookings: Washington.

Rajamani, L. 2000. The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility and the Balance of Commitments under the Climate Regime. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 9 (2): 120–131.

Rajamani, L. 2008. Indiens internationale Klimapolitik. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 22: 19–25.

Rajamani, L. 2009. The Copenhagen Agreed Outcome: Form, Shape and influence. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research.

Rajamani, L. 2010a. Neither fish nor fowl. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research.

Rajamani, L. 2010b. The can-can’t at Cancun. Indian Express. 14 December. (available at http://www.indianexpress.com/story-print/724374, last accessed 16 January 2012).

Rajan, M.G. 1997. Global Environmental Politics. India and the North-South Politics of Global Environmental Issues. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Rettmann, A. 2009. Russia makes surprise CO2 pledge at summit. EUObserver. 18 Nov. (available at http://euobserver.com/24/29014/?rk=1, last accessed 28 February 2010).

Rettmann, A. 2010. Ashton names EU foreign-service priorities at low-key launch event. EUObserver. 2 Dec. (available athttp://euobserver.com/18/31413, last accessed 19 December 2010).

Reuters. 2007a. Ban Ki-moon’s speech at UN Bali Climate Talks, 12 December. (available at http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L1248845.htm, last accessed 12 May 2008).

Reuters. 2007b. China to reject binding emissions caps, Europe says. 7 Nov. 2007 (available at http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/PEK359325.htm, last accessed 30 July 2009).

Reuters. 2007c. U.S. U-turn brings Bali climate deal. 15 December (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/feedarticle?id=7155608, last accessed 15 January 2008).

Reuters. 2009a. EU wants more on climate from China, lauds Japan. 1 Sept. (available at http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL1608967, last accessed 13 March 2010).

Reuters. 2009b. Rich nations trying to kill Kyoto pact, says China. 5 Oct. (available at http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSSP280493, last accessed 10 February 2010).

Reuters. 2010. Snubbed in Copenhagen, EU weighs climate options. 13 Jan. (available at http://www.busrep.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=552&fArticleId=5311734, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Reuters. 2011a. Euro zone crisis to widen climate fund gap: report. 17 November (available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/17/us-climate-finance-idUSTRE7AG0L720111117, last accessed 16 December 2011).

← 352 | 353 →Reuters. 2011b. Kanadas Kyoto-Wende erzürnt China. 13 December. (available at http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/0,1518,803367,00.html, last accessed 20 December 2011).

Reuters. 2011c. U.N. climate talks reach modest deal. 11 December (available at http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/12/11/worldupdates/20111211T053801Z_17_TRE7B909W_RTROPTT_0_UKCLIMATE&sec=Worldupdates, last accessed 28 December 2011).

Rhinard, M., and M. Kaeding. 2006. The International Bargaining Power of the European Union in ‘Mixed’ Competence Negotiations: The Case of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Journal of Common Market Studies 44 (5): 1023–1050.

Ricard, P. 2009. L’Europe divisée sur les négociations climatiques. Le Monde. 29 Sept. (available at http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2009/09/29/l-europe-divisee-sur-les-negociationsclimatiques_1246660_3244.html, last accessed 29 March 2010).

Risse, T. 2002. Constructivism and International Institutions: Towards Conversations Across Paradigms. In Political Science: State of the Discipline, ed. I. Katznelson, and H. Milner, 597–629. New York: Norton.

Risse, T. 2004. Global Governance and Communicative Action. Government and Opposition 39 (2): 298–302.

Romàn, M., and M. Carson. 2009. Sea Change: US Climate Policy Prospects Under the Obama Administration. Stockholm: The Commission on Sustainable Development.

Romero, J. 2004. An assessment of the Swiss experience with the Environmental Integrity Group in the UNFCCC process. Presentation. Ankara Climate Change Conference 2004. (available at http://www.iklim.cevreorman.gov.tr/sunumlar/romero.pdf, last accessed 24 July 2009).

Rowbotham, E. 1996. Legal obligations and uncertainties in the climate change convention. In Politics of Climate Change. A European Perspective, ed. T. O’Riordan, and J. Jäger, 32–50. London: Routledge.

Rowlands, I. H. 2001. Classical theories of international relations. In International relations and global climate change, ed. U. Luterbacher and D.F. Sprinz, 43–65. Cambridge and London: The MIT Press.

Runge-Metzger, A. 2008. The link between EU domestic policies and international negotiations or “The Power of the Example”. Informal EU Workshop on Climate Change. Brdo, Slovenia, 20–22 January.

Santarius, T., C. Arens, U. Eichhorst, D. Kiyar, F. Mersman, H.E. Ott, F. Rudolph, W. Sterk, and R. Watanabe. 2009. Pit Stop Poznan. An Analysis of Negotiations on the Bali Action Plan at the Stopover to Copenhagen. Wuppertal: Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy.

Santini, J.-L. 2009. US pressed over climate leadership role. AFP. 4 March (available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20090304/pl_afp/climateenergyuseurope_20090304153150, last accessed 21 February 2010).

Saretzki, T. 1996. Wie unterscheiden sich Verhandeln und Argumentieren? In Verhandeln und Argumentieren. Dialog, Interessen und Macht in der Umweltpolitik, ed. V. Prittwitz, 19–39. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

← 353 | 354 →Sbragia, A. 1998. Institution-Building from below and above: The European Community in Global Environmental Politics. In European Integration and Supranational Governance, ed. W. Sandholtz, and A. Stone Sweet, 283–303. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Sbragia, A. 2000. Environmental Policy: Economic Constraints and External Pressures. In Policy-making in the European Union, 4th ed., ed. H. Wallace, and W. Wallace, 293–316. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Scheipers, S., and D. Sicurelli. 2007. Normative Power Europe: A credible Utopia? In Journal of Common Market Studies 45 (2): 435–457.

Schneider, F., and A.F. Wagner. 2002. What happened in Marrakech? COP-7 and recent agreements on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Online Paper (available at http://www.economics.uni-linz.ac.at/members/Schneider/files/publications/MarrakechJune4.PDF, last accessed 3 August 2009).

Schreurs, M.A., and Y. Tiberghien. 2007. Multi-Level Reinforcement: Explaining European Union Leadership in Climate Change Mitigation. Global Environmental Politics 7 (4): 19–46.

Schröder, H. 2001. Negotiating the Kyoto Protocol. An analysis of negotiation dynamics in international negotiations. Münster: LIT Verlag.

Schumer, S. 1996. Die Europäische Union als Akteur in der internationalen Klimapolitik: das Beispiel des Ozon- und Klimaregimes. Mosbach: AFES-PRESS-Report 55.

Schunz, S. 2009. The European Union’s external climate policy: a foreign policy analysis. CFSP Forum 7 (2): 1–6.

Schunz, S. 2010. European Union foreign policy and its effects: a longitudinal study of the EU’s influence on the United Nations climate change regime (1991–2009). Ph.D. dissertation. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Schunz, S. 2011. Beyond leadership by example. Discussion Paper. Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs.

Schunz, S., S. Basu, H. Bruyninckx, S. Keukeleire, and J. Wouters. 2012. Analysing the position of the EU in the United Nations system: analytical framework. In The European Union and Multilateral Governance: Assessing EU Participation in United Nations Human Rights and Environmental Fora, ed. J. Wouters, H. Bruyninckx, S. Basu, and S. Schunz, 25–48. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schunz, S., S. Happaerts, and K. Van den Brande. 2009. European Union foreign policy and global climate change: towards a comprehensive European climate diplomacy? Leuven: Centre for Global Governance Studies.

Sebenius, J.K. 1991. Designing Negotiations Toward a New Regime: The Case of Global Warming. International Security 15 (4): 110–148.

Shanka Jha, P. 2009. Indian public perceptions of the international climate change negotiations (available at http://www.stimson.org/rv/pdf/Indian_Climate_Change/Jha_Indian_Public_Perceptions.pdf, last accessed 23 March 2010).

Sjöstedt, G. 1977. The external role of the European Community. Farnborough: Hants.

← 354 | 355 →Sjöstedt, G. 1998. The EU Negotiates Climate Change. External Performance and Internal Structural Change. In Cooperation and Conflict 33 (3): 227–256.

Sjöstedt, G. 1999. Leadership in Multilateral Negotiations: Crisis or Transition? In International Negotiation: Actors, Structure/Process, Values, ed. P. Berton, H. Kimura, and I.W. Zartman, 223–253. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Skjaerseth, J. 1994. Climate Policy of the EC: Too Hot to Handle. Journal of Common Market Studies 32 (1): 25–45.

Skjærseth, J., and J. Wettestad 2008. EU Emissions Trading: Initiation, Decision-making and Implementation. Farnham: Ashgate.

Smith, K.E. 2003. European Union Foreign Policy in a Changing World. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Smith, K.E. 2007. The EU in the World: Future Research Agendas. European Foreign and Security Policy Studies Programme. Anna Lindh award lecture. Brussels. 19 October.

Smith, K.E. 2010. The European Union in the World: Future Research Agendas. In Research Agendas in EU Studies. Stalking the Elephant, ed. M. Egan, N. Nugent, and W. Paterson, 329–353. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Somers, M.R. 1998. “We’re No Angels”: Realism, Rational Choice, and Relationality in Social Science. The American Journal of Sociology 104 (3): 722–784.

Spence, C., K. Kulovesi, M. Gutiérrez, and M. Muñoz. 2008. Great Expectations: Understanding Bali and the Climate Change Negotiation Process. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 17 (2): 142–153.

Spencer, T., K. Tangen, and A. Korppoo. 2010. The EU and the Global Climate Regime. Getting Back in the Game. Helsinki: The finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Spiegel. 2008a. Geheimpapier belegt Blockadehaltung der USA. Spiegel online. 2 June (available at http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/0,1518,557 167,00.html, last accessed 25 June 2010).

Spiegel. 2008b. US-Senat blockiert Klimaschutzgesetz. Spiegel online. 6 June (available at http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/mensch/0,1518,558211,00.html, last accessed 25 October 2009).

Spiegel. 2009a. Japans neue Regierung will CO2-Ausstoß drastisch senken. Spiegel online. 7 Sept. (available at http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/0,1518,647364,00.html, last accessed 10 April 2010).

Spiegel. 2009b. Asien-Gipfel torpediert Klimakonferenz in Kopenhagen. Spiegel online. 15 Nov. (available at http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,661350,00.html, last accessed 4 February 2010).

Spiegel. 2010. Kopenhagen-Protokolle: Geheimer Mitschnitt enthüllt Eklat bei Klimagipfel. Spiegel online. 2 May (available at http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/natur/0,1518,692471,00.html, last accessed 5 May 2010).

Spillmann, C. 2009. Climate heating up at EU global warming talks. AFP. 27 Sept. (available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ibLioxT2NPbGrjYcuXEa61I0Vtwg, last accessed 25 February 2010).

← 355 | 356 →Sprinz, D. ed. 2001. Climate Change After Marrakech: The Role of Europe in the Global Arena. German Foreign Policy in Dialogue. Trier: University of Trier.

Stearns, J., and A. Morales. 2009. U.S. Climate Plan Threatens EU Goal for Global Accord. Bloomberg. 22 May (available at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601090&sid=aACte9HS5us8, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Steffek, J. 2005. Incomplete agreements and the limits of persuasion in international politics. Journal of International Relations and Development 8 (2): 229–256.

Sterk, W., C. Arens, U. Eichhorst, F. Mersmann, and H. Wang-Helmreich. 2011a. Processed, Refried – Little Substance Added: Cancún Climate Conference Keeps United Nations Process Alive but Raises More Questions than It Answers. Wuppertal: Institute for Climate, Energy, and Environment.

Sterk, W., C. Arens, F. Mersmann, H. Wang-Helmreich, and T. Wehnert. 2011b. On the road again: progressive countries score a realpolitik victory in Durban while the real climate continues to heat up. Wuppertal: Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy.

Stern, N. 2007. The Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Stern, T., and W. Antholis. 2007/2008. A Changing Climate: The Road Ahead for the United States. The Washington Quarterly 2007/2008 31 (3): 175–188.

Tangen, K. 1999: The climate change negotiations: Buenos Aires and beyond. Global Environmental Change 9 (1): 175–178.

Ten Kate, D. and C. Airlie. 2011. EU May Extend Kyoto Climate Treaty if Conditions Are ’Right’. Bloomberg. 8 April (available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-08/eu-may-extend-kyoto-climate-treaty-if-conditions-are-right-1-.html, last accessed 18 May 2011).

The Guardian. 2009. Copenhagen climate change summit – final day live blog. 18 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2009/dec/18/copenhagen-climate-change-summit-liveblog/print, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Torney, D. 2013. European Climate Diplomacy. Building capacity for external action. Briefing Paper 141. Helsinki: FIIA.

Torvanger, A. 2001. An analysis of the Bonn Agreement: Background information for evaluating business implications. Oslo: CICERO.

Toth, F. 2008. Adaptation to climate change. Presentation. Central European University Budapest. 1 July.

Ulbert, C., T. Risse, and H. Müller. 2004. Arguing and Bargaining in Multilateral Negotiations. Paper presented at the conference “Empirical Approaches to Deliberative Politics”. European University Institute florence. 21–22 May.

Urpelainen, J. 2009. The United States of America. In Towards a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, ed. A. Korppoo, and A. Luta, 100–117. Helsinki: The finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Van Asselt, H., N. Kanie, and I. Masahiko. 2009. Japan’s position in international climate policy: navigating between Kyoto and the APP. International Environmental Agreements 9 (2): 319–336.

← 356 | 357 →Van Schaik, L., and C. Egenhofer. 2003. Reform of the EU Institutions: Implications for the EU’s Performance in Climate Negotiations. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

Van Schaik, L., and K. van Hecke. 2008. Skating on thin ice. Europe’s internal climate policy and its position in the world. Brussels: Egmont Institute.

Van Schaik, L., and S. Schunz. 2012. Explaining EU Activism and Impact in Global Climate Politics: Is the Union a Norm- or Interest-Driven Actor? Journal of Common Market Studies 50(1): 169–186.

Verdonk, M., C. Brink, H. Vollebergh, and M. Roelfsema. 2013. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. The Hague: PBL.

Verolme, H. 2012. European Climate Leadership, Durban and beyond. Brussels: Heinrich Böll Foundation.

Victor, D.G., and Salt, J.E. 1994. From Rio to Berlin. Managing Climate Change. Environment 36 (10): 7–32.

Vidal, J. and F. Harvey. 2011. COP17 climate talks: Durban text follows EU roadmap for new global deal. The Guardian. 9 December (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/dec/09/un-climate-talks-durban-text, last accessed 26 January 2012).

Vidal, J., and J. Watts. 2009. Copenhagen: The last-ditch drama that saved the deal from collapse. The Guardian. 20 Dec. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/20/copenhagen-climate-global-warming, last accessed 25 February 2010).

Vogler, J. 2005. The European contribution to global environmental governance. International Affairs 81 (4): 835–850.

Vogler, J. 2008. Climate Change and EU Foreign Policy: The Negotiation of Burden-Sharing. Dublin: University College.

Von Seth, H. 1999. Global climate. Yearbook of International Environmental Law 10: 223–233.

Watanabe, R. 2003. Less than Satisfactory Results. Environmental Policy and Law 33 (1): 18–20.

Watts, J. 2009. China sets first targets to curb world’s largest carbon footprint. The Guardian. 26 November.

Watts, J. 2010. Climate deal is closer, says UN envoy, despite China and US locking horns. The Guardian. 9 October. (available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/oct/09/climate-talks-china-america-clash, last accessed 22 October 2010).

Webber, M., and M. Smith. eds. 2002. Foreign Policy in a Transformed World. London: Prentice Hall.

Werksman, J. 1998. The Clean Development Mechanism: Unwrapping the ‘Kyoto Surprise’. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 7 (2): 147–158.

Wettestad, J. 2000. The complicated development of EU climate policy. In Climate Change and European leadership: A sustainable role for Europe, ed. J. Gupta, and M. Grubb, 25–47. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

← 357 | 358 →White, B. 2001. Understanding European Foreign Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Wigley, T.M.L. 1999. The science of climate change. Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.

Wilkenfeld, J., G. Hopple, P. Rossa, and S. Andriole. 1980. Foreign Policy Behavior. The Interstate Behavior Analysis Model. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Willis, A. 2010a. France, UK and Germany call for 30 percent CO2 cut. EUObserver. 15 July (available at http://euobserver.com/884/30482, last accessed 18 September 2010).

Willis, A. 2010b. Cancun climate deal restores faith in UN process. EUObserver. 12 Dec. (available at http://euobserver.com/9/31482/?rk=1, last accessed 22 March 2012).

Wittneben, B., W. Sterk, H.E. Ott, and B. Bround. 2006. In from the Cold: The Climate Conference in Montreal Breathes New Life into the Kyoto Protocol. Wuppertal: Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy.

Wong, P. 2008. Australia’s goal of cutting emissions by 15% in 2020. New Europe. Issue 815. 5 January.

World Bank. 2008. World Bank Ranking Table. 2008 GDP.

Wurzel, R.K.W., and J. Connelly. 2010. Conclusion: the European Union’s leadership role in international climate politics reassessed. In The European Union as a Leader in International Climate Change Politics, ed. R.K.W. Wurzel, and J. Connelly, 271–290. London: Routledge.

Xinhua. 2008a. Meeting on climate change ends in Paris without tangible agreement. 19 April (available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/19/content_8008112.htm, last accessed 22 March 2010).

Xinhua. 2008b. World major economies wrap up Hawaii climate meeting. 1 February (available at http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90777/6349502.html, last accessed 13 March 2010).

Yamin, F. 1998. The Kyoto Protocol: Origins, Assessment and Future Challenges. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 7 (2): 113–127.

Yamin, F. 2000. The role of the EU in climate negotiations. In Climate Change and European leadership: A sustainable role for Europe, ed. J. Gupta, and M. Grubb, 47–66. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Yamin, F., and J. Depledge. 2004. The International Climate Change Regime: A Guide to Rules, Institutions and Procedures. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Yin, R. 2003. Case Study Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Young, O.R. 1989a. International Cooperation. Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

Young, O.R. 1989b. The Politics of International Regime Formation: Managing Natural Resources and the Environment. International Organization 43 (3): 349–376.

Young, O.R. 1994. International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society. Ithaca: Cornell UP.

← 358 | 359 →Young, T. 2010. Australia ditches carbon cap-and-trade plans: Australian Prime Minister drops plans for climate bill. Businessgreen. 27 April (available at http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/1804424/australia-ditches-carbon-cap-trade-plans, last accessed 23 June 2010).

Yuxia, J. 2008. Barroso: financial crisis no excuse for ignoring climate change. Chinaview. 25 Oct. (available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-10/25/content_10250642.htm, last accessed 25 March 2009).

Zammit Cutajar, M. 2009. Presentation: Fulfilment of the Bali Action Plan and components of the agreed outcome. Bonn, 27 March.

Zhang, Z. 2010. Copenhagen and Beyond: reflections on China´s Stance and Responses. Washington, DC: East-West Center.

Zito, A. 2005. The European Union as an Environmental Leader in a Global Environment. Globalizations 2 (3): 363–375.← 359 | 360 →