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Paradoxes du plurilinguisme littéraire 1900

Réflexions théoriques et études de cas

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Edited By Britta Benert

L’ouvrage s’inscrit dans un champ de recherches en pleine expansion depuis le nouveau millénaire, le plurilinguisme littéraire, et qui a pour originalité d’historiciser le propos en explorant une période charnière, la fin du XIX e siècle.
Aucun ouvrage existant n’est vraiment centré sur ce tournant du siècle, moment où la doxa de pureté de la langue et les esprits nationalistes tendent à promouvoir, voire à imposer l’idéal du monolinguisme et où, parallèlement, persiste à travers l’Europe et le monde un nombre important de situations et d’expérimentations diverses à contre-courant du monolinguisme puriste.
Fruit d’un colloque qui s’est tenu dans le cadre du XX e Congrès de l’Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée à l’Université de la Sorbonne, à l’été 2013, les 14 contributeurs du présent volume interrogent cette situation paradoxale à partir de textes littéraires et de leurs auteurs, et contribuent à éclairer les différentes strates du plurilinguisme littéraire 1900 en leur complexe et souvent ambivalent enchevêtrement politique, éthique et esthétique – dont les problématiques ne sont pas sans rappeler les paradoxes du monde actuel dans un contexte où mondialisation et repli identitaire coexistent souvent.
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The Who-Wolves and their Lalula: Aspects of the Interrelation between Maccaronism and Nonsense around 1900

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Monika SCHMITZ-EMANS

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

It is not only – and probably not even in the first instance – the field of cultural phenomena in which processes of borderline crossing and hybridization attract the most vivid interest in the decades around 1900, but the field of nature and natural phenomena itself: concepts of evolutionism and hybridization dominate scientific discourses and influence non-scientific thinking and writing. Summarized in a few words, the central idea of evolutionary theory is that there are no trans-historical natural species: Every species is involved in a permanent changing process, and thus there are no clear definitions of species, no borderlines separating their respective individuals from those of other species. The idea of ‘purity’ as well as the concept of something absolutely ‘original’ gradually becomes obsolete. Moreover, the idea of nature itself being ‘historical’, stimulates concepts and projects of intentional and concrete hybridization. Darwin’s concept of evolution, according to which natural species adapt to their living conditions, was inspired by the observation of breeding practices as there were already established forms of manipulating natural species, as for instance when new breeds of dogs, cattle or horses were designed and created1. Thus nature is not only interpreted as historical, but its history ← 197 | 198 → is modelled in analogy or at least in comparison with cultural production techniques. Complementary to this important step of levelling out the categorial difference between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’, Darwinism as a theory about ‘nature’ offers a discursive basis for different...

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