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The External Relations of the European Union

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Pascaline Winand, Andrea Benvenuti and Max Guderzo

The book analyses the attitudes of non-EU countries towards European integration in historical and contemporary perspectives. The authors study a range of actors in Europe and beyond to explain the impact of the creation of the European Communities on the international system and how the EU is perceived in the world.
The book further shows the significance of the institutional interplay within the EU, and between EU institutions, member states and external actors led by their own internal dynamics to explain policy outcomes. It investigates to what extent the perceptions of the international community towards the European Communities and the EU have been influenced by the complexity of their decision-making and the difficulty of reconciling the views of member states on key external relations issues. The authors also study the interplay of non-EU countries and the EU within the broader context of international and regional institutions and forums for international cooperation.
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Linking Europe and Empire: Making Strategic Choices on the Eve of the Treaty of Rome

Europe and Empire: The Choice of France and Belgium

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Linking Europe and Empire

Making Strategic Choices on the Eve of the Treaty of Rome

Laura KOTTOS

University of Reading

On the eve of the Treaty of Rome, between April 1955 and March 1957, major political events came to influence the European integration process. In April 1955, countries which had obtained their independence after the war met at the Bandung Conference and proclaimed their opposition to colonialism. Two months later, at another historic conference in Messina, a number of European countries embarked on negotiations which would lead to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC). Following the declaration of independence by a number of former Asian colonies, some African countries (Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia and Ghana) freed themselves from colonial rule in 1956-1957. The decline of France and the United Kingdom as imperial powers was underlined by their retreat from the Suez Canal in 1956, all this within a context in which the two great post-war powers − the United States and the Soviet Union − were highly critical of European imperialism. Whilst colonialism was under threat in this way, the Treaty of Rome establishing the EEC was signed in March 1957, containing a section which explicitly stipulated that the overseas territories of the Six would be associated with this new community.

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