Ces études, conduites à travers les lieux et les époques – du Moyen Âge à la période la plus contemporaine –, apportent un éclairage original sur l’imaginaire urbain « dépressif » ou « mélancolique », et sur les modalités des redéfinitions identitaires, parfois drastiques, auxquelles sont soumis les individus. Elles montrent en outre que ces phénomènes ne sont en rien l’apanage d’une supposée postmodernité.
Urbanization and ethno-religious politics in the city
Shirlita Africa ESPINOSA
Université du Luxembourg
Manila, the capital city of the Philippines, typifies a city in the South today: overcrowded, chaotic and a heavy aura of an unfinished, even failed, modernity. This sense of malaise is nonetheless countered by the rich history of the city and the fascinating material culture of its inhabitants. Tracing its history from pre-colonial times as a bustling fishing village of the Tagalogs (from tagailog: river-dwellers), the indigenous peoples mingled in a multicultural, multilingual and polytheistic environment. Manila hosts intramuros, “within the walls”, from where the Spanish colonial bureaucracy ruled Las Islas Filipinas (the Philippines). Manila in the 1620s was a multiracial city, the « first primate city in Southeast Asia” (Doeppers 1978, p. 782). A common phenomenon in Southeast Asia, Manila exhibited the “dual functionality of a port and a political entity” (Tagliacozzo 2007, p. 914). Centuries on, Manila of 14.88 square miles is home to 1.7 million Filipinos, while the “megalopolis” Metro Manila, the ever-expanding urban and peri-urban spaces typical of cities in developing nations, hosts 16 million inhabitants, making it the 11th most populous city in the world (National Statistics Office 2010). Today, Manila shares the pattern observed in neoliberal cities such as the intensification of racial/ethnic division and poverty, an increase in criminal activities and drug addiction, dependence on underground economy, and the more entrenched subordination of women (Susser and Schneider 2003, p. 4). Manila has become very much rooted in the global processes into which...
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