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Modelling Dual-Use Trade Control Systems

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Odette Jankowitsch-Prevor, Quentin Michel and Sylvain Paile

The Chaudfontaine Group was established in 2010 as an annual two-day gathering of young Europeans with diverse academic backgrounds, including lawyers, economists and political scientists, from relevant national authorities, European institutions, scientific centres and industry. Its members are invited to discuss their respective viewpoints on the European trade of sensitive goods, focusing on the strategic issues confronting this sector in a rapidly evolving international context.
In December 2013, at its fourth conference, the Group met with African experts to debate the question of how African countries control the trade of dual-use items and the challenges they face in their search for effective regulations. The objective was to study whether international norms and experiences, pertaining both to states and to organisations, could be used as standardised models for African countries affected by unique security concerns.
This volume analyses and discusses those trade control systems which could be described as «models» and might therefore serve as a standard to be exported to the African countries in question. The debate is multi-levelled and studies the possibility of setting universal, regional or even-sub-regional norms.
The contributors to this book, who display a wide variety of expertise, call for the adoption of norms which they argue have the potential to reconcile freedom of trade with international security, without presuming that these norms should be universal.
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The Control of Export of Dual-Use Material from Kenya (Hamadi Iddi Boga)

Extract

Hamadi Iddi BOGA

Professor of Microbiology, Taita Taveta University College

Kenya lies in East Africa astride the equator. Kenya’s neighbours include Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan and the war torn Somalia. As a country that is located in a rather restless region beset by war in Somalia, Southern Sudan, parts of Ethiopia and also in the nearby Great Lakes Region, Kenya has been variously described as an Island of peace in a sea of turmoil. After many years as a single party republic, Kenya has always practiced a form democracy that is slightly more progressive than most of its neighbours. Currently, Kenya has a vibrant multiparty system, a robust civil society and a vibrant press.

Kenya thus attracts many people from within Africa and beyond, is a major transit point and retains an age-old reputation of being the place where sailors like Vasco Da Gama would rest en route to India. Because Kenya enjoys relative peace and is located strategically at the heart Africa it provides a home to many refugees from the region, and also is crucial transit point to Africa, Europe and Asia. The port of Mombasa is especially critical for imports and exports into and out of the region. Nairobi also is a major air transport hub for the region.

To quote Simon Limage, US Deputy Assistant Secretary for Non-proliferation Programs:

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