In December 2013, at its fourth conference, the Group met with African experts to debate the question of how African countries control the trade of dual-use items and the challenges they face in their search for effective regulations. The objective was to study whether international norms and experiences, pertaining both to states and to organisations, could be used as standardised models for African countries affected by unique security concerns.
This volume analyses and discusses those trade control systems which could be described as «models» and might therefore serve as a standard to be exported to the African countries in question. The debate is multi-levelled and studies the possibility of setting universal, regional or even-sub-regional norms.
The contributors to this book, who display a wide variety of expertise, call for the adoption of norms which they argue have the potential to reconcile freedom of trade with international security, without presuming that these norms should be universal.
From Global Straggler to Regional Exemplar. Japan’s Export Control System 1990-present (Crystal D. Pryor)
← 130 | 131 →From Global Straggler to Regional Exemplar
Japan’s Export Control System 1990-present
Crystal D. PRYOR
PhD Candidate – University of Washington
In this chapter, I offer a brief update on the progress of US export control reform and an in-depth description of the contemporary Japanese export control system. I suggest that other countries have much to learn from Japan’s failures and successes in the field of export controls.
The United States used its export control system to prevent the Soviet Union and its allies from gaining a military advantage during the Cold War. The Export Administration Act of 1979 formed the basis of this system. The export control system grew less effective and more cumbersome in the post-Cold War period, causing businesspeople, bureaucrats, and politicians to press for reform. In 2009, the Obama Administration finally launched a comprehensive review of the system. People assigned to this task included representatives from the Departments of State, Defence, Commerce, Energy, Treasury, Justice, Homeland Security, and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.1
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