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Modelling Dual-Use Trade Control Systems

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Odette Jankowitsch-Prevor, Quentin Michel and Sylvain Paile

The Chaudfontaine Group was established in 2010 as an annual two-day gathering of young Europeans with diverse academic backgrounds, including lawyers, economists and political scientists, from relevant national authorities, European institutions, scientific centres and industry. Its members are invited to discuss their respective viewpoints on the European trade of sensitive goods, focusing on the strategic issues confronting this sector in a rapidly evolving international context.
In December 2013, at its fourth conference, the Group met with African experts to debate the question of how African countries control the trade of dual-use items and the challenges they face in their search for effective regulations. The objective was to study whether international norms and experiences, pertaining both to states and to organisations, could be used as standardised models for African countries affected by unique security concerns.
This volume analyses and discusses those trade control systems which could be described as «models» and might therefore serve as a standard to be exported to the African countries in question. The debate is multi-levelled and studies the possibility of setting universal, regional or even-sub-regional norms.
The contributors to this book, who display a wide variety of expertise, call for the adoption of norms which they argue have the potential to reconcile freedom of trade with international security, without presuming that these norms should be universal.
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Export Control Systems: a Bulgarian Perspective (Velislava Zhivkova)

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Velislava ZHIVKOVA

PhD Researcher, International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy, Moscow State Institute of International Relations

It has been a long way for the Bulgarian export control system to evolve to its current state. Until 1989 and especially during the period 1978-1988, Bulgaria was characterised by a strong military-industrial complex, which was of a dominant importance for its national economy. The “complex” was specialised and export oriented (around 90 per cent of its production) within the Warsaw Pact and the COMECON.1

The transitional period after 1989 had a strong impact on the military industry in the country. Bulgaria lost many of its traditional markets2 and the industry was concerned with the introduction of further export controls, which would lead to further loss of markets and income.3

However, in 1991 the Government laid down the foundation of an export control regime, as the first set of legislation had only covered military products.4 Dual-use goods and technologies were included in the law at the end of 1992.5 Finally, a comprehensive set of legal instruments consisting of a law6 and an implementing regulation was adopted in 1996.

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