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National Monuments and Nationalism in 19th Century Germany

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Hans A. Pohlsander

No century in modern European history has built monuments with more enthusiasm than the 19th. Of the hundreds of monuments erected, those which sprang from a nation-wide initiative and addressed themselves to a nation, rather than part of a nation, we may call national monuments. Nelson’s Column in London or the Arc de Triomphe in Paris are obvious examples. In Germany the 19th century witnessed a veritable flood of monuments, many of which rank as national monuments. These reflected and contributed to a developing sense of national identity and the search for national unity; they also document an unsuccessful effort to create a «genuinely German» style. They constitute a historical record, quite apart from aesthetic appeal or ideological message. As this historical record is examined, German national monuments of the 19th century are described and interpreted against the background of the nationalism which gave birth to them.

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Index 299

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Bandel, Ernst von, 133, 148, 153–56, 176 Barbarossa, see Friedrich Barbarossa Bartok, Bela, 41 Becker, Nikolaus, 68–69 Beethoven, Ludwig van, 115 Befreiungshalle, 141–44 Begas, Reinhold, 21, 112, 211–13, 219, 222 Belle-Alliance, see Waterloo Benedict VIII, Pope, 244 Berlin Air Lift monument, 249 (Alte) Nationalgalerie, 98, 232, 234, 235, 247 Brandenburger Tor, 14, 21, 175–82 Deutsches Historisches Museum, 72, 73, 177, 233, 234, 237, 238 Dom, Hohenzollern Crypt, 182 “Einheits- und Freiheits-Denkmal” (planned), 249–50 Frederick the Great, monument to, 191–94 Friedenssäule, 198 Großer Stern, 197, 220 Holocaust Memorial, 18, 249 Humboldt-Universität, 41, 82, 126, 238 Invalidensäule, 199 Kreuzbergdenkmal, 169, 190–91 National Monument to Bismarck, 197, 198, 219–20 National Monument to Kaiser Wilhelm, 204, 211–13 Neue Wache, 188–89 Pariser Platz, 179 Reichstag, 181, 197, 219 Afinger, Bernhard, 49 Albrecht, Wilhelm Eduard, 80 Alexander I, Tsar, 200–201 Alsace-Lorraine, 242 Bismarck towers at Mörchingen (Morhange) and Metz, 228 See also Wörth-Fröschweiler Apel, Theodor, 173 Arminius, 46, 52–54, 135, 139, 147–49, 153– 54, 156–57, 160 Arminius or Arminio, opera, 150 Arndt, Ernst Moritz, 32, 33, 43–49, 62, 82, 90, 94, 125, 144, 168 Arnim, Achim von, 29 Assenhausen, Bavaria Bismarck tower, 227 Athens Propylaea, 175 Parthenon, 133 Aufseß, Hans Freiherr vom, 97 Augsburg Confession, 120 Peace of, 120 Aumühle Bismarck monument, 229–30 Bismarck tower, 229 Austerlitz, Battle of, 201 Austro-Prussian War, 179, 185 Bach, Johann Sebastian, 114 Bad Harzburg Bismarck...

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