The Semantic Development of Five French Suffixes in Middle English
CHAPTER 6 The Suf fix -age in Middle English 145
Chapter 6 The Suf fix -age in Middle English 6.1. History and Morphology 6.1.1. History Marchand (1969) states that the suf fix -age came into the language through loans from French and derived mainly from the Latin suf fix -aticum, form- ing both denominal and deverbal derivatives. Some borrowings also derive in French from the Latin noun class ending in -ago. Marchand points out that the suf fix gave rise to many medieval Latin (ML) words in -agium, such as scutagium, and that several of these were ‘for a long time quoted in Latin form only’ (1969: 234, 4.4.1). 6.1.2. Morphological types I have classified words in -age in my ME sample according to four main morphological types. In Type 1 the suf fix is a spelling of the Latin noun ending -ago, which appeared in ME in such forms as CARTILAGE. This noun has no AN or OF equivalent and seems to have been borrowed directly from Latin using -age as a spelling for -ago. The type has of course no simplex form in English. In Latin the nominal suf fix is -go, occurring on a variety of stems of which is only one. Type 2 is borrowed into English from French, where it derives from the Latin and ML noun in -aticum. It has no simplex form in English or French. Examples include VIAGE. 146 Chapter 6 Type 3, e.g. deverbal MARIAGE, is borrowed from French or formed in English on latinate nominal, adverbial and verbal bases. Examples...
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