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National Varieties of German outside Germany

A European Perspective

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Edited By Gabrielle Hogan-Brun

In what way do the national varieties of German outside Germany differ? How do they manifest themselves in different levels of language use? What attitudes exist towards the use of these varieties and how are they reflected in national and European-wide language policies? What is the role of the media?
This collection of especially commissioned articles, written in English by internationally renowned experts, explores these and related questions. It draws together research on the status and role of German and on attitudes towards its use in Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy (South Tyrol), France (Alsace), Denmark (Nordschleswig) and Hungary.

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Glossary 263

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Glossary Abstandsprache (distance language) Languages that are distant in form from other languages and therefore separate (e.g. Danish and German). Amtssprache (official language) The status and/or function of a language in a particular nation or re- gion; this can be solely official (e.g. German in Austria) or co-official (e.g. German, French and Italian in Switzerland). Ausbausprache (elaboration language) Varieties of a genetically related standard language that, usually through the strength of political will, are in the process of becoming separate languages as was the case for Letzebuergesch in Luxembourg (Newton, this volume). Austrianisms (Austriazismen) Linguistic features, especially words primarily used in Austria (e.g. Paradeiser for 'Tomate'). Austrian Standard German (ASG) see Hochdeutsch autostereotype What one social group thinks of itself; heterostereotype: how we see others or how others see us; projective heterostereotype: stereotyped views assumed to be held by another group (Rash, this volume). bilingualism (Bilingualismus) a) Ability of an individual to speak two or more languages; b) use of two or more languages in a speech community; primary (primdrer) b. means that two (or more) languages are learnt from the earliest years; the term secondary (sekunddrer) b. is used to describe situations where the second language is learnt later (e.g. at 264 Glossary school, as for German in Denmark or French and German in Luxem- bourg); recessive (riicklaufiger) b. refers to the fact that one language is allowed to predominate to the detriment of the other (as in Alsace- Lorraine). Binnendeutsch ('inner German') The variety of standard German used...

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