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The Orthodox Church in Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century

Christine Chaillot

It is common knowledge that the majority of the population of Eastern Europe belong to the Christian Orthodox tradition. But how many people have an adequate knowledge of the past or even of the present of these Orthodox churches? This book aims to present an introduction to this history written for a general audience, both Christian and non-Christian.
After the 1917 revolution in Russia, communism spread to most of the countries of Eastern Europe. By 1953, at the time of Stalin’s death, the division between Eastern and Western Europe seemed absolute. However, the advent of perestroika at the end of the 1980s brought about political changes that have enabled the Orthodox Church to develop once again in Eastern Europe.
The foundation of the European Union in 1993 has had a broader significance for Orthodox communities, who can now participate in the future development of Europe. Some Orthodox Churches already have their representatives at the European Union in Brussels. These include the patriarchates of Constantinople, Russia and Romania, along with the Church of Greece and the Church of Cyprus.
Today, Europe is becoming increasingly religiously diverse, even within Christianity itself. A growing number of Orthodox Christians have come to work and settle in Western Europe. An understanding of the history of the Orthodox communities in Eastern Europe in the twentieth century will contribute, in a spirit of informed dialogue, to the shaping of a new united Europe that is still in the process of expansion.
This book is translated from the French version (published 2009).

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Glossary 451

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Glossary Archimandrite An honorific title given to certain priest-monks. Conference of European In French, Conférence des Églises européennes Churches (CEC) (CEE). Dean The ecclesiastical person responsible for a district (parish or other). Deanery The district administered by a dean. Ecumenical Patriarchate According to Canon 3 of the Council of Constan- of Constantinople tinople (381), a primacy of honour is given to the patriarch of Constantinople. But this does not alter the fact that all the Orthodox patriarchates and churches, together with their communities in the diaspora, constitute the universal Orthodox Church. Great Lent Time preceeding Easter (seven weeks). Jurisdiction Also the ‘representation’ of a patriarchate or a church outside its geographical and patriarchal borders. Locum tenens An acting patriarch or archbishop, ‘keeper’ of his (plural: locum tenentes) see. Metochion A Greek word indicating a monastery, hermitage, or church which is a dependency of an important monastery; in Russian podvorie. Metropolitan In Russian usage, ecclesiastical status superior to that of a bishop and under whom are several dio- ceses. In Greece and Cyprus all diocesan bishops are metropolitans. 452 Glossary Millets In the Ottoman Empire the religious communities (millets), Christian and Jewish, lived under the pro- tection of their religious leaders and according to their own statutes. The Christian Orthodox com- munity which included all the Orthodox of the Ottoman Empire (Rum millet), Slavs and Arabs as well as Greeks, was under the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox patriarchate of Constantinople. Old and New Calendars The Gregorian calendar, called...

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