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Strategic Rebellion

Ethnic Conflict in FYR Macedonia and the Balkans

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Pavlos Ioannis Koktsidis

Since the end of the Cold War, the consolidation of peace and security in south-eastern Europe has been one of the most complex and troublesome issues facing the international community. The sequence of conflicts in the Balkans has resulted in serious loss of life, economic collapse, and a number of controversial interventions, leading contemporary scholars to reconsider old perceptions about violent ethnic conflict. Drawing on a wealth of theoretical and empirical sources, this book tackles some of the prevailing questions on the root causes and management of ethnic conflict. Under what conditions do ethnic minorities become violent? How credible are the theories of «relative deprivation» and «greed» in explaining the outbreak of conflict? Is the use of coercive diplomacy a superior alternative to direct military forms of intervention? This book provides an analytical account of the socio-economic roots of ethnic conflict, the opportunities for violent mobilization and the success of strategic coercion in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and it also examines related developments in Kosovo and the Balkans.

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Appendix 1Origins and Profiles of Main Parties and Groups 233

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Appendix 1 Origins and Profiles of Main Parties and Groups KLA / UCK The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) / Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës (UCK) formed in 1992 (although it first became active in 1996) and operated mainly in Kosovo, Albania and FYR Macedonia as an armed national- separatist formation seeking to achieve Kosovo’s independence from the Yugoslav Federal Republic. The KLA’s violent campaign triggered a fierce Serbian crackdown, swelling the ranks of the group with new recruits and provoking an external military intervention by NATO. The organization was estimated to have 12,000 to 20,000 active members by the beginning of 1999. After the completion of military operations in Kosovo, KLA dis- banded and was transformed into the Kosovo Protection Forces. Many of its members were later integrated in the police force, while others pursued careers in politics. UCPMB The Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveda and Bujanovac / Ushtria Çlirimtare e Preshevës, Medveg jës dhe Bujanocit is a small separatist mili- tant Albanian group which operated mainly in Serbia and Kosovo in the period between June and November 2000. The group constituted a KLA / UCK of fshoot and it was held responsible for a series of violent attacks against Serbian police across the Ground Safety Zone areas. After a NATO- led “screen and release” policy, members of the group turned themselves in to the Kosovar authorities and the group disbanded. NLA / UCK The National Liberation Army / Ushtria Çlirimtare Kombëtare is an...

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