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Helen Waddell and Maude Clarke

Irishwomen, Friends and Scholars

Jennifer FitzGerald

As women’s university participation expanded rapidly in the first decade of the twentieth century, two close friends at Queen’s University Belfast nursed scholarly ambitions. Helen Waddell, budding feminist literary critic, and Maude Clarke, future Irish historian, were to become famous medievalists. Waddell’s progress was stymied by her stepmother’s insistence on family duty and by academic misogyny; Clarke’s father, in contrast, helped to clear her way. This joint biography intertwines the story of their friendship with their modern education, their shifting research interests and the obstacles and opportunities that faced them as women seeking academic careers. It traces Waddell’s evolution into an independent scholar, creative writer and translator of medieval Latin, and Clarke’s career as an influential Oxford don, training a generation of high-achieving women academics. The book also reproduces the surviving chapters of Helen Waddell’s Woman in the Drama before Shakespeare (1912-1919), an example of early feminist literary criticism, and Maude Clarke’s searching, self-reflective ‘Historiographical Notes’ (c.1930).

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Bibliography Archival Sources Bodleian Library, Oxford, Special Collections and Western Manuscripts Lucy Stuart Sutherland Papers Enid Starkie Papers R. Ellis Roberts Papers, MS Eng. lett. d. 446 Cambridge University Library For Intellectual Liberty: Correspondence and Papers, MS. Add. 9369 Clarke Family Papers In possession of Dr Richard Clarke Girton College, Cambridge Helen Maud Cam Personal Papers Harvard University Archives Edward Kennard Rand Papers, HUG 4730.5 Houghton Library, Harvard University Sir William Rothenstein Papers, b MS Eng 1148 (1558) Kilmacrew House, Banbridge, Co. Down, Northern Ireland Helen Waddell Papers in possession of Louise Anson (formerly Helen Waddell Papers held at Stanbrook Abbey) Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford Helen Waddell Papers 248 Bibliography National Library of Wales Sir Goronwy Edwards Papers, box 203 Public Record Of fice of Northern Ireland Kathleen White (depositor) Papers, T 2032 Queen’s University Library, Belfast Helen Waddell Papers, QUL MS 18 Uncatalogued: Helen Waddell’s correspondence with George Saintsbury Virginia Woolf to ‘William’ [Cole], 16 January 1932 Queen’s University Belfast Student Records Somerville College, Oxford Association of Senior Members Committee Minute Book Maude Violet Clarke Papers College Discipline File, 1918/19 Penrose Correspondence File Lady de Villiers Papers Stanbrook Abbey, Wass, Yorkshire Felicitas Corrigan Papers Trinity College, Dublin Seumas O’Sullivan Papers, 4630–49 Victoria College Belfast Archives Victoria College Annual Report West Sussex Public Record Of fice Murray Papers, Acc 9601 Bibliography 249 Published University and College Records and Statutes and Newspapers Oxford University Gazette Examination Statutes Keble College Centenary Register Lady Margaret Hall Register Somerville College Register Royal University...

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