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Developing Criticality in Practice Through Foreign Language Education

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Stephanie Houghton and Etsuko Yamada

Many universities have adopted criticality as a general aim of higher education, in order to meet the demands of an increasingly globalised world. But what is criticality, and how does it develop in practice? This book explores the concept in detail and considers how it can be systematically developed in practical ways through foreign language education.
Taking a practice-first rather than a theory-first approach, the book presents two case studies based on action research in order to investigate criticality development through foreign language education. One study was conducted in beginner level Japanese language classes at a British university by a Japanese teacher-researcher, and the other was conducted in upper-intermediate English language classes at a Japanese university by a British teacher-researcher. The two studies illuminate the complex experiences of students and teachers as criticality starts to develop in both planned and unplanned ways, from beginner-level to more advanced levels of foreign language learning. The authors also suggest a range of practical teaching approaches which can be used to develop criticality through targeted instruction.

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Index Action research 23, 35–39, 50, 71, 73, 74, 153, 154 Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters 16–17, 123 Barnett, Ronald 2–3, 5, 6–12, 33, 34, 56, 63, 64–67, 68, 106, 107, 108, 119, 135, 154, 160, 166–167, 174 CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) 14, 15, 16 Citizenship 5, 13, 16, 17, 25, 72, 77, 141, 154 CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) 32, 34, 153, 155–156, 165 Comparison and contrast 26, 47, 49, 55, 58–59, 68, 71, 76, 77, 78, 80, 84, 88, 91, 92, 95, 96, 97, 99, 104, 115–120, 123, 124, 129, 144, 154, 159, 160, 162, 167–168, 171 Council of Europe 14–17 Critical action 6, 12 Critical being 6, 7, 10, 12, 64 Critical cultural awareness 5, 13, 14–21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 61, 71, 72, 141, 154, 162, 164, 169 Critical educator 21, 159 Critical evaluation 8, 26, 27, 56, 76, 80, 81, 110, 125–140, 141, 148, 149, 150, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 175 Critical pedagogy 12, 20, 21, 55–58, 59, 164 Critical reason 6, 33 Critical ref lection 10, 12, 106, 107, 108, 119, 120–123, 135, 168 Critical self-ref lection 6, 12, 138, 167 Critical thinking 4–6, 7, 11, 12, 35, 36, 55–57, 64, 125, 163, 164, 166 Criticality Project at the University of Southampton 2–3, 23, 33, 63, 64–67, 68, 153, 154, 156, 160 First-order thinking 13–14, 165 ID (Intercultural Dialogue) 17, 19,...

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