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Goethe and Hafiz

Poetry and History in the "West-östlicher Divan</I>

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Shafiq Shamel

This book offers a study of West-East cross-cultural and cross-contextual literacy by investigating Goethe’s relationship to the poetics of fourteenth-century Persian poet Hafiz in the West-östlicher Divan. Goethe’s collection of poetry, this book argues, constitutes a turning point in the history of German poetic subjectivity. The intellectual and historical significance of the Divan is examined by considering Goethe’s conception of history both in relation to Hegel’s philosophy of history as well as the linear notion of progress throughout the nineteenth century. Furthermore, the book demonstrates how the rise of aesthetics and the transition from a theological to a secular-humanistic conception of history and humanity in Europe positively influenced the reception of non-European literatures at the end of the eighteenth century. Hafiz, as argued here, owes his textual presence in the Divan to a cross-cultural and cross-temporal poetic vision that has its roots in the European Enlightenment. The book also elaborates on the role translation plays in the development of poetry and poetics as exemplified in the works of Sir William Jones (1746-1794) and Josef Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall (1774-1856), translators of Oriental poetry into English and German.

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Abbasids 59 access to Oriental literature 137 Adam 121 Addison, Joseph 131 Adorno, Theodor 77 Adorno, Theodor and Horkheimer, Max: Dialektik der Aufklärung 30, 42 ‘aesthetic bliss’ 10 aesthetic experience and dis/continuity 230 distinct from poetic event 229 and history 216, 218–19 and modernity 229 and poetic memory 224, 226 and present moment 229–30 and sensuous presence of phenom- enal world 215, 227 aesthetics and art as discontinuity 13–14 as branch of knowledge 136–7 judgment 137 of Sir William Jones 149–54 Afghanistan 91 allegory 35, 36, 177, 191 alterity 2, 28, 29 Anacreon 141 angels 100 anthropomorphism 173 appropriation and colonialism 28–32, 45–7 Arab conquest of Persia 168 Arabic poetry 223 Arabschah, Ibn 32, 34, 45 Arberry 56–7, 85 Aristotle 35, 138, 148 Arjomand-Fathi, Nushafarin 3 Aruzi, Nizami: Four Discourses 59–62, 67 Attar: Conference of the Birds 112 audience of poetry 63, 69–70, 172, 236 Austria 163 see also Oriental Academy, Vienna Averroes 151 Barbad: Shahnamah 58–9 Barthes, Roland 84 n1, 122 Battuta, Ibn 55–6, 85, 108 Bell, Gertrude 85 bells 176–7 Benjamin, Walter 19, 22–3, 49, 92, 199 fidelity in translation 200–1 Bertaux, Pierre 217 Bible 223 Bohrer, Karl Heinz 217, 239 n49 Der Abschied 6 Boisserée 34 Borchmeyer, Dieter 18, 44 n83 Böttiger, C. W. 161 Boyce, Mary 58 Brahmanism 132 Brown, E. 74 n56 Buddhism 132 Bukhara 61, 62 Burke, Edmund 152 Burke, Kenneth 91 Butcher, Samuel H. 35...

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