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Invisible Languages in the Nineteenth Century

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Edited By Anna Havinga and Nils Langer

The great linguistic diversity of spoken languages contrasts greatly with the much smaller number of languages used in written discourse. Many linguistic varieties – in particular, regional and minority languages – are not deemed suitable for writing because they do not possess the necessary lexical wealth or grammatical complexity. Such prejudices are commonplace amongst non-linguists and they have their origin in the sociolinguistic history of their speaker communities.
This book focuses on the nineteenth century as the time when language became an important part of the cultural identity of speakers, communities and nations. It comprises fourteen chapters on a variety of languages and countries and seeks to explore why and how certain linguistic varieties were excluded from written discourse – in other words, why they remain invisible to contemporary readers and modern historians. The case studies in this book illustrate the factors involved in the invisibilisation of languages in the nineteenth century; the metalinguistic debates about the suppression or promotion of regional, minority and non-standard languages; and the ways in which a careful study of informal writing can visibilise the linguistic diversity of spoken languages.

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academic communities 67 Adelung, Johann Christoph 144, 215 Alemannic 76, 78 Angeln / Anglia 149–168, 254 Anglo-Saxon 153 apocope 141, 264–269 Austria 191, 196, 257, 259, 261–262, 265, 273–274, 276 Austrian German 14–15, 258 bad data 5 ‘best’ languages 136 bilingualism 114, 124–125, 129–130, 132, 160, 205, 245–246, 248, 255 education 185, 189 environments 128 speakers 120, 131 Boxer Rebellion 177 Breton 37–41, 43, 48 British English 7 Brittany 36, 42–43 Catholic 41 Castilian 284 Catalan 288 Catholic 39–41, 46, 120–122, 128, 192, 197, 199, 201, 205–206 Catholic clergy 130–131 Celtic languages 35–37, 214 areas 43 censoring 75 census 119 Chile 51–67 China 174–176, 182, 188 Chinese 173–174, 176, 177, 182, 184–185 Christian Mission 176, 181 Christianity 184–185, 188, 195 church services 35 see also language, of church services churches 18 civil war 97 in Schleswig-Holstein 168 see also First Schleswigian War; Schleswig Wars; Spanish Civil War code-copying 100 see also language, contact; language, mixing code-switching 28 see also language, contact; language, mixing codex 15 codification 13, 21, 23 codified norms 98 colonial period 54–55 colonisation 52 contact phenomena see language, contact Copenhagen 242–245, 247–248, 251–252, 254 Cree letters see under letters Czech 222 Danish 12, 17–18, 153, 156–157, 159–161, 163, 194, 240, 243–244, 248, 251–252 see also Standard Danish; South Jutish Danish borders 200 304 Index estate assemblies 241, 250...

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