From Charles I to Charles Taylor
3 War Guilt after World War I
The empire which grew out of the French Revolution ended in defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. But the universalist principles it enunciated lived on and European politics were never the same again. Throughout the nineteenth century, as European states extended their empires overseas, a universalist concept of law gained ground according to which law was not the pruden- tial balance between competing claims of citizens within a given and clearly delineated territory, as it had previously been understood to be, but instead the application in civil life of absolute moral principles.1 The worldwide reach of empires encouraged the development of the worldwide reach of the law. The French Revolution had destroyed for ever the principle that the king embodied the rule of God on earth – rule restricted to a particular territory – and so the future now seemed to belong to disembodied and abstract universal moral principles instead. In keeping with this universal- ist spirit, there was a growth in international law. New international laws of war, supposedly valid at all times and in all places, were formulated in Geneva, the city of Calvin and Rousseau – the philosophers of the English and French revolutions respectively. The founding conference of the Red Cross was held in 1863 and laws of war were to be promulgated there in 1864, 1906, 1929, 1949, and 1977. Geneva was also the city in which the ephemeral League of Nations was to be situated in the inter-war years. But neither these laws, nor the laws of...
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