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Jerusalem in the Achaemenid Period

The Relationship between Temple and Agriculture in the Book of Haggai

Jieun Kim

This is the first book to explore the importance of agriculture in relation to the restoration of the Jerusalem temple in the Book of Haggai during the Achaemenid period. Scholars discussing the rebuilding of the temple have mainly focused on the political and social context. Additionally, the missions of Ezra and Nehemiah have been used as a basis for analysing the economy of postexilic Judah. This has, however, understated the wider socio-economic significance of the temple by disregarding the agricultural capacity of Judah.
The Book of Haggai is primarily concerned with agriculture and the temple. This analysis of Haggai includes an examination of the temple’s reconstruction from a historical and economic point of view, with agriculture playing a central role. Archaeological records are examined and show that prized commodities such as olives and grapes were produced in and around Jerusalem in large quantities and exported all over the ancient Near East.
This book is intended to shed new light on the value of agriculture for the people of Judah and the whole imperial economy. It also presents a new interpretation of the Book of Haggai and a new perspective on the temple economy in Jerusalem.


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Abbreviations AB Anchor Bible ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary ABSA Annual of the British School at Athens ABL Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Ael., NA Aelianus, De Natura Animalium. AH Achaemenid History ANET Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament AnOr Analecta Orientalia AOAT Alter Orient und Altes Testament AOS American Oriental Series AOTC Abingdon Old Testament Commentary AP Arthur Ernest Cowley. Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC Ar Archaeology ASOR American Schools of Oriental Research BA Biblical Archaeologist BAR Biblical Archaeology Review BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BCLS Bohn’s Classical Library Series BE X Albert Tobias Clay. Business Documents of Murashu Sons of Nippur Dated in the Reign of Darius II (424–404 BC) BEATAJ Beiträge zur Erforschung vom Alten Testaments und Antiken Judentums x Abbreviations Bertin Unpublished Bertin Copies of Babylonian Tablets in the Collection of the British Museum BHQ Biblia Hebraica Quinta BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Bib Biblica BM British Museum BT The Bible Translator BWANT Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament CAH The Cambridge Ancient History CANE Civilizations of the Ancient Near East CBC Cambridge Bible Commentary CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly CC A Continental Commentary CHI The Cambridge History of Iran CHJ The Cambridge History of Judaism CMa Inscription of Cyrus II from Murghab (a) CMb Inscription of Cyrus II from Murghab (b) CMc Inscription of Cyrus II from Murghab (c) Colloq Colloquium CT Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British museum Cyr. Xenophon, Cyropaedia DAE...

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