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Basque Nationhood

Towards a Democratic Scenario


Edited By Pedro Ibarra Güell and Åshild Kolås

Debates about Basque self-determination were curtailed for decades by political violence, involving both the actions of ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) and the counter-terrorism activities of Spain and France. In 2011, ETA announced a permanent cessation of operations. Since then, stakeholders have become increasingly aware of the need to rethink Basque nationhood and democratic representation in light of the changing nature of nationhood and citizenship within the European Union. These issues are also topical in the French Basque country, which has witnessed a re-emergence of Basque identity politics in recent years.
This book describes the contemporary re-imagining of Basque nationhood in both Spain and France. Taking a fresh look at the history of Basque nationalist movements, it explores the new debates that have emerged since the demise of non-state militancy. Alongside analysis of local transformations, it also describes the impact of global changes on ideas about Basque self-determination.


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List of Tables


Table 0.1 Evolution (reproduction and mutation) of Basque nationhood in Spain 12 Table 2.1 Votes in first four elections after restoration of democracy (1979–1982) across villages in Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa 70 Table 2.2 Descriptive population statistics 72 Table 2.3 Historical determinants of PSOE votes after Democratic Transition 75 Table 2.4 Historical determinants of AP/UCD votes after Democratic Transition 76 Table 2.5 Historical determinants of PNV votes after Democratic Transition 77 Table 2.6 Historical determinants of HB votes after Democratic Transition 79 Table 4.1 Subjective feelings of identity of citizens of the Basque country in Spain 133 Table 4.2 Predominant identity in ACBC, CCN and French Basque country 135 Table 4.3 Conditions for being able to regard oneself as Basque 136 Table 4.4 Navarrese citizens’ views on Navarrese and Basque culture and identity 137 Table 7.1 Majority opinion of the electorate regarding diversity and immigration 243

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