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Basque Nationhood

Towards a Democratic Scenario

Series:

Pedro Ibarra Güell and Åshild Kolås

Debates about Basque self-determination were curtailed for decades by political violence, involving both the actions of ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) and the counter-terrorism activities of Spain and France. In 2011, ETA announced a permanent cessation of operations. Since then, stakeholders have become increasingly aware of the need to rethink Basque nationhood and democratic representation in light of the changing nature of nationhood and citizenship within the European Union. These issues are also topical in the French Basque country, which has witnessed a re-emergence of Basque identity politics in recent years.
This book describes the contemporary re-imagining of Basque nationhood in both Spain and France. Taking a fresh look at the history of Basque nationalist movements, it explores the new debates that have emerged since the demise of non-state militancy. Alongside analysis of local transformations, it also describes the impact of global changes on ideas about Basque self-determination.

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abertzale see patriotic left Acción Nacionalista Vasca (ANV) 65, 129, 229 Aguirre, José Antonio 35, 230 Aiete Conference 47–9 Declaration of 21, 48–50 Ajuria-Enea Pact 44 Alianza Popular (AP) 70, 76 Álvarez Enparantza, José Luis 85, 94–5, 99 Anoeta Declaration 45–6 Anti-Terrorist Liberation Groups see Grupos Antiterroristas de Lib- eración (GAL) Araba 66, 69, 121, 131, 133, 164, 266, 284, 286 Arana, Sabino 35, 129, 229–30, 259, 265, 290 Atlantic Pyrenees see Pyrénées-Atlantiques Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (ACBC) 17, 20, 24, 42, 47, 83–4, 90–1, 93, 99, 106, 110, 13–14, 121–3, 126, 130, 133–6, 138–40, 144, 146–7, 151, 172–3, 183, 188, 192, 194, 197, 199–200, 205–7, 209, 214, 223–4, 230, 239–41, 284–8 elections 25, 29, 42–3, 47, 69–71, 74–80, 130–1, 164–5, 224, 230, 234 government 21, 25, 42, 49–50, 58, 70, 84, 94, 103–6, 113–14, 132, 140, 144, 158, 164–5, 169, 171, 176, 224, 236–41 health care 12, 105, 110, 140, 188, 205–6, 241 legislative power 23, 26, 185, 189, 195–7, 206–7, 265 president (lehendakari) 164–5, 169 Statute of Autonomy 12, 15, 18, 20, 35–6, 42, 168, 183–4, 186–8, 190–2, 197, 200, 201–7, 214, 219, 239 Basque Homeland and Liberty see Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) Basque identity 1–2, 10–13, 20–4, 27–9, 45, 63...

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